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Chess program - MiniMAX in QBASIC


' Declaration of Subroutines
DECLARE SUB PrintLogo ()
DECLARE SUB Initialize ()
DECLARE SUB CommandLoop ()
DECLARE FUNCTION AlphaBeta% (Alpha%, Beta%, Distance%)
DECLARE SUB GenerateMoves (AllMoves%)
DECLARE SUB PerformMove (CurrMove%)
DECLARE SUB TakeBackMove (CurrMove%)
DECLARE SUB CopyMainVariant (CurrMove%)
DECLARE FUNCTION AttackingField% (Feld%, Side%)
DECLARE FUNCTION AssessPosition% (Alpha%, Beta%, Side%)
DECLARE SUB InitAssessment ()
DECLARE SUB DisplayBoard (BoardOnly%)
DECLARE SUB ComputerMove ()
DECLARE SUB InitGameTree ()
DECLARE SUB DisplayMove (CurrMove%)
DECLARE SUB DisplayMVar ()
DECLARE SUB PrintMove (CurrMove%)
DECLARE SUB PrintPosition ()
DECLARE SUB PrintBack ()
DECLARE FUNCTION Fieldnotation$ (Fieldnum%)
DECLARE FUNCTION Fieldnumber% (Fieldnote$)
DECLARE SUB SavePromotion (from%, too%)
DECLARE SUB SaveMove (from%, too%)
DECLARE SUB SaveCaptureMove (from%, too%)
DECLARE SUB SaveEpMove (from%, too%, ep%)
DECLARE SUB FlipBoard ()
DECLARE SUB GameOver ()
DECLARE SUB InputPosition ()
DECLARE SUB MoveList ()
DECLARE SUB MoveBack ()
DECLARE SUB ComputingDepth ()
DECLARE SUB ReadPiece (Side%)
DECLARE FUNCTION NextBestMove% ()
DECLARE FUNCTION BPAssessment% (Feld%, Column%, row%, developed%)
DECLARE FUNCTION WPAssessment% (Feld%, Column%, row%, developed%)
DECLARE FUNCTION InputMove% (Move$)

'--------------------------------------------------------------------
'  Definition of symbolic Constants.
'--------------------------------------------------------------------
CONST BoardDim% = 119              ' Dimension of Expanded Chess Board
CONST MaxDepth% = 19               ' Maximum search depth
CONST Movedirections% = 15         ' Number of Move directions for all Piece.
CONST PieceTypes% = 6              ' Number of Piecetypes - considering
                                   ' the Move directions (wQueen = bQueen)
CONST MoveStackDim% = 1000         ' Dimension of move stacks

        ' Piece

CONST BK% = -6                     ' Black piece
CONST BQ% = -5
CONST BN% = -4
CONST BB% = -3
CONST BR% = -2
CONST BP% = -1
CONST Empty% = 0                   ' Empty field
CONST WP% = 1                      ' White piece
CONST WR% = 2
CONST WB% = 3
CONST WN% = 4
CONST WQ% = 5
CONST WK% = 6
CONST Edge% = 100                   ' The edge of the chess board

        ' Material value of the Pieces

CONST MatP% = 100
CONST MatR% = 500
CONST MatB% = 350
CONST MatN% = 325
CONST MatQ% = 900
CONST MatK% = 0                     ' As both Sides have just one king,
                                    ' the value can be set to 0

        ' Assessment for Mate

CONST MateValue% = 32000
CONST MaxPos% = MatB%               ' Maximum of the position assessment

        ' Bonus for main variants and Killer moves
        ' used for the sorting of moves

CONST MainVariantBonus% = 500
CONST Killer1Bonus% = 250
CONST Killer2Bonus% = 150

        ' Total material value in the initial position

CONST MaterialSum% = 4 * (MatR% + MatB% + MatN%) + (2 * MatQ%)
CONST EndgameMaterial% = 4 * MatR% + 2 * MatB%

        ' Field numbers of frequently used Fields
        ' ("if Board(E1%)=WK%" means "if Board(25)=6")

CONST A1% = 21
CONST B1% = 22
CONST C1% = 23
CONST D1% = 24
CONST E1% = 25
CONST F1% = 26
CONST G1% = 27
CONST H1% = 28
CONST C2% = 33
CONST H2% = 38
CONST A3% = 41
CONST C3% = 43
CONST D3% = 44
CONST E3% = 45
CONST A6% = 71
CONST C6% = 73
CONST D6% = 74
CONST E6% = 75
CONST H6% = 78
CONST A7% = 81
CONST C7% = 83
CONST H7% = 88
CONST A8% = 91
CONST B8% = 92
CONST C8% = 93
CONST D8% = 94
CONST E8% = 95
CONST F8% = 96
CONST G8% = 97
CONST H8% = 98

        ' Values of columns and rows

CONST ARow% = 1
CONST BRow% = 2
CONST CRow% = 3
CONST DRow% = 4
CONST ERow% = 5
CONST FRow% = 6
CONST GRow% = 7
CONST HRow% = 8
CONST Column1% = 2
CONST Column2% = 3
CONST Column3% = 4
CONST Column4% = 5
CONST Column5% = 6
CONST Column6% = 7
CONST Column7% = 8
CONST Column8% = 9

        ' Castling numbering (Index into castling array)
        ' of move is not a castling move

CONST NoCastlingMove% = 0
CONST ShortCastlingMove% = 1
CONST LongCastlingMove% = 2

        ' Color of the man who is moving

CONST White% = 1
CONST Black% = -1

        ' Symbolic logical Constants

CONST True% = 1
CONST False% = 0
CONST Legal% = 1
CONST Illegal% = 0

'-------------------------------------------------------------------
        '  Definition of data types.
'-------------------------------------------------------------------

        ' Information for one move, the data type of the move stacks

TYPE MoveType
   from            AS INTEGER          ' From field
   too             AS INTEGER          ' To field
   CapturedPiece   AS INTEGER          ' Captured piece
   PromotedPiece   AS INTEGER          ' Promoted piece
   CastlingNr      AS INTEGER          ' Type of castling move
   EpField         AS INTEGER          ' Enpassant field
   Value           AS INTEGER          ' Assessment for the sorting of moves
END TYPE

        ' Index of the pieces in the offset list and long/short paths
        ' (used by the move generator)

TYPE PieceOffsetType
   Start        AS INTEGER
   Ends         AS INTEGER
   Longpaths    AS INTEGER
END TYPE

        ' Information on pawn/piece constellations

TYPE BothColourTypes
   White        AS INTEGER
   Black        AS INTEGER
END TYPE

      ' Information on From/Too field (Moves without additional Information)
      ' Used for the storing promising moves in (main variants,
      ' killer moves)

TYPE FromTooType
   from          AS INTEGER
   too           AS INTEGER
END TYPE

        ' Data structure for storing killer moves.

TYPE KillerType
   Killer1      AS FromTooType
   Killer2      AS FromTooType
END TYPE

'--------------------------------------------------------------------
        '  Definition of global variables and tables
'--------------------------------------------------------------------

DIM SHARED Board(BoardDim%)          AS INTEGER
DIM SHARED EpField(MaxDepth%)        AS INTEGER
DIM SHARED MoveStack(MoveStackDim%)  AS MoveType
DIM SHARED MoveControl(H8%)          AS INTEGER
                                   ' Counts how often a piece has moved from
                                   ' a field. Used to determine castling
                                   ' rights (also useable for
                                   ' Assessment)

DIM SHARED Castling(2) AS INTEGER   ' Has White/Black already Castled?
DIM SHARED Index       AS INTEGER   ' Index in MoveStack

     ' Saves the position in the MoveStack. Moves of Depth 'n' are stored in
     ' range (StackLimit(n), StackLimit(n+1)) in MoveStack.

DIM SHARED StackLimit(MaxDepth%)      AS INTEGER
DIM SHARED MVar(MaxDepth%, MaxDepth%) AS FromTooType  ' Main variants table
DIM SHARED KillerTab(MaxDepth%)       AS KillerType   ' Killer moves table

        ' Tables for Assessment function

DIM SHARED PawnControlled(BoardDim%) AS BothColourTypes ' Fields that are
                                                        ' controlled by pawns

DIM SHARED Pawns(HRow% + 1)    AS BothColourTypes  ' Number of pawns per row
DIM SHARED Rooks(HRow% + 1)    AS BothColourTypes  ' Number of rooks per row

DIM SHARED Mobility(MaxDepth%) AS INTEGER  ' Mobility of bishops and rooks
DIM SHARED TooFeld(MaxDepth%)  AS INTEGER  ' TooField of the moves`, used for
                                         ' Sorting of moves and for extension
                                           ' of searches
DIM SHARED wKing AS INTEGER                ' Position of the white king
DIM SHARED bKing AS INTEGER                ' Position of the black king
DIM SHARED MaterialBalance(MaxDepth%) AS INTEGER ' Material balance between White/Black
DIM SHARED MaterialTotal(MaxDepth%) AS INTEGER   ' Total material on board
DIM SHARED Colour AS INTEGER                     ' Who is to make a move
DIM SHARED PlayerPlayer AS INTEGER       ' Player vs Player (Memo)Mode on/off
DIM SHARED Printing AS INTEGER           ' Printing moves off/on
DIM SHARED MinDepth AS INTEGER           ' Generally searches are performed
                                         ' until MinDepth
DIM SHARED MaxExtension AS INTEGER      ' Extensions in search tree because of
                                        ' Checks and Captures are only carried out
                                         ' until MaxExtension (otheriwse the
                                           ' search can explode)
DIM SHARED Depth AS INTEGER               ' Search depth = the number of half moves
                                           ' from the initial position
DIM SHARED NodeCount    AS LONG          ' Number of examined positions/nodes
DIM SHARED LastMove     AS INTEGER         ' Last performed move
DIM SHARED InCheck      AS INTEGER         ' Player is being checked
DIM SHARED MoveCount    AS INTEGER         ' Number of half moves done so far
DIM SHARED IsWhiteLast  AS INTEGER         ' For printing control

        ' InitialPosition of 10 by 12 Board

DIM SHARED InitialPosition(BoardDim%) AS INTEGER

FOR i% = 0 TO BoardDim%
   READ InitialPosition(i%)
NEXT i%

DATA 100,100,100,100,100,100,100,100,100,100
DATA 100,100,100,100,100,100,100,100,100,100
DATA 100, 2 , 4 , 3 , 5 , 6 , 3 , 4 , 2 ,100
DATA 100, 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 ,100
DATA 100, 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 ,100
DATA 100, 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 ,100
DATA 100, 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 ,100
DATA 100, 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 ,100
DATA 100,-1 ,-1 ,-1 ,-1 ,-1 ,-1 ,-1 ,-1 ,100
DATA 100,-2 ,-4 ,-3 ,-5 ,-6 ,-3 ,-4 ,-2 ,100
DATA 100,100,100,100,100,100,100,100,100,100
DATA 100,100,100,100,100,100,100,100,100,100

        ' Move generator tables

DIM SHARED Offset(Movedirections%) AS INTEGER

Offset(0) = -9                         ' Diagonal paths
Offset(1) = -11
Offset(2) = 9
Offset(3) = 11

Offset(4) = -1                         ' Straight paths
Offset(5) = 10
Offset(6) = 1
Offset(7) = -10

Offset(8) = 19                         ' Knight paths
Offset(9) = 21
Offset(10) = 12
Offset(11) = -8
Offset(12) = -19
Offset(13) = -21
Offset(14) = -12
Offset(15) = 8

DIM SHARED FigOffset(PieceTypes%) AS PieceOffsetType

FigOffset(Empty%).Start = 0            ' Empty field
FigOffset(Empty%).Ends = 0
FigOffset(Empty%).Longpaths = False%

FigOffset(WP%).Start = -1              ' Pawn Moves are produced seperately
FigOffset(WP%).Ends = -1
FigOffset(WP%).Longpaths = False%

FigOffset(WR%).Start = 4               ' Rook
FigOffset(WR%).Ends = 7
FigOffset(WR%).Longpaths = True%

FigOffset(WB%).Start = 0               ' Bishop
FigOffset(WB%).Ends = 3
FigOffset(WB%).Longpaths = True%

FigOffset(WN%).Start = 8               ' Knight
FigOffset(WN%).Ends = 15
FigOffset(WN%).Longpaths = False%

FigOffset(WQ%).Start = 0               ' Queen
FigOffset(WQ%).Ends = 7
FigOffset(WQ%).Longpaths = True%

FigOffset(WK%).Start = 0               ' King
FigOffset(WK%).Ends = 7
FigOffset(WK%).Longpaths = False%

        ' Centralization tables. We only need files 0..H8, as
        ' piece can't stand on a field outside H8.
        ' The lower edge is preserved as we would otherwise have to
        ' transform board coordinates into centrality coordinates.
        ' H1 is is further away from the center than is G1. In spite of this,
        ' H1 has a better center value than G1.
        ' This Table is used i.e. for king Assessment.
        ' The Values of G1,H1 imply that the king remains on G1
        ' after castling and doesn't perform the unnecessary move G1-H1.
        ' (The knight is neither very well placed on G1 nor H1).

DIM SHARED CenterTable(H8%) AS INTEGER

FOR i% = 0 TO H8%
   READ CenterTable(i%)
NEXT i%

'      --- A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H ---
DATA   0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0
DATA   0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0
DATA   0,  4,  0,  8, 12, 12,  8,  0,  4,  0
DATA   0,  4,  8, 12, 16, 16, 12,  8,  4,  0
DATA   0,  8, 12, 16, 20, 20, 16, 12,  8,  0
DATA   0, 12, 16, 20, 24, 24, 20, 16, 12,  0
DATA   0, 12, 16, 20, 24, 24, 20, 16, 12,  0
DATA   0,  8, 12, 16, 20, 20, 16, 12,  8,  0
DATA   0,  4,  8, 12, 16, 16, 12,  8,  4,  0
DATA   0,  4,  0,  8, 12, 12,  8,  0,  4

        ' Assessment of the fields for the pawns.
        ' Is used the position assessment.
        ' Center pawns on the 2nd row is bad (they belong in the front).
        ' F-H pawns should be behind for protection of the king.

DIM SHARED wPFieldValue(H7%) AS INTEGER  ' White pawns

FOR i% = 0 TO H7%
   READ wPFieldValue(i%)
NEXT i%

'      --- A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H ---
DATA   0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0
DATA   0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0
DATA   0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0
DATA   0,  4,  4,  0,  0,  0,  6,  6,  6,  0
DATA   0,  6,  6,  8,  8,  8,  4,  6,  6,  0
DATA   0,  8,  8, 16, 22, 22,  4,  4,  4,  0
DATA   0, 10, 10, 20, 26, 26, 10, 10, 10,  0
DATA   0, 12, 12, 22, 28, 28, 14, 14, 14,  0
DATA   0, 18, 18, 28, 32, 32, 20, 20, 20
        ' No pawn can stay on the 8th row.

DIM SHARED bPFieldValue(H7%) AS INTEGER    ' Black pawns

FOR i% = 0 TO H7%
   READ bPFieldValue(i%)
NEXT i%

'      --- A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H ---
DATA   0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0
DATA   0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0
DATA   0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0
DATA   0, 18, 18, 28, 32, 32, 20, 20, 20,  0
DATA   0, 12, 12, 22, 28, 28, 14, 14, 14,  0
DATA   0, 10, 10, 20, 26, 26, 10, 10, 10,  0
DATA   0,  8,  8, 16, 22, 22,  4,  4,  4,  0
DATA   0,  6,  6,  8,  8,  8,  4,  6,  6,  0
DATA   0,  4,  4,  0,  0,  0,  6,  6,  6,  0
        ' No pawn can stay on the 8th row.

        ' Material value of the pieces

DIM SHARED PieceMaterial(PieceTypes%) AS INTEGER

PieceMaterial(Empty%) = 0              ' Emptyfield
PieceMaterial(WP%) = MatP%             ' Pawn
PieceMaterial(WR%) = MatR%             ' Rook
PieceMaterial(WB%) = MatB%             ' Bishop
PieceMaterial(WN%) = MatN%             ' Knight
PieceMaterial(WQ%) = MatQ%             ' Queen
PieceMaterial(WK%) = MatK%             ' King

        ' Symbolic representation of the pieces

DIM SHARED FigSymbol(PieceTypes%) AS STRING * 1

FigSymbol(Empty%) = "."                 ' Emptyfield
FigSymbol(WP%) = "P"                    ' Pawn
FigSymbol(WR%) = "R"                    ' Rook
FigSymbol(WB%) = "B"                    ' Bishop
FigSymbol(WN%) = "N"                    ' Knight
FigSymbol(WQ%) = "Q"                    ' Queen
FigSymbol(WK%) = "K"                    ' King

        ' Symbolic representations of the pieces for printing

DIM SHARED PrintSymbol(PieceTypes%) AS STRING * 1

PrintSymbol(Empty%) = " "               ' Emptyfield
PrintSymbol(WP%) = " "                  ' Pawn
PrintSymbol(WR%) = "R"                  ' Rook
PrintSymbol(WB%) = "B"                  ' Bishop
PrintSymbol(WN%) = "N"                  ' Knight
PrintSymbol(WQ%) = "Q"                  ' Queen
PrintSymbol(WK%) = "K"                  ' King

        ' Color symbols

DIM SHARED ColourSymbol(2) AS STRING * 1
ColourSymbol(0) = "."                  ' Black
ColourSymbol(1) = "."                  ' Empty field
ColourSymbol(2) = "*"                  ' White

'--------------------------------------------------------------------
        '  The actual program begins here.
'--------------------------------------------------------------------
CLS
'CALL PrintLogo
CALL Initialize
CALL CommandLoop

'--------------------------------------------------------------------
        '  Here ends the Program
'--------------------------------------------------------------------

'--------------------------------------------------------------------
' AlphaBeta: Function
' Alpha-Beta Tree search
' Returns Assessment from the viewpoint of the player who is to make
' a move. "Alpha" is lower limit, "Beta" is the upper limit and "Distance"
' the Number of half-moves until the horizon.
' If "Distance" positive, a normal Alpha-Beta search is performed,
' if less than 0 the quiescense search.
' Returns the NegaMax-Value form the point of view of the player who is
' to make a move.
' This procedure is called recursively.
' Locale Variables: i%, Value%, BestValue%, Check%
' Calls:     GenerateMoves; PerformMove; TakeBackMove;CopyMainVariant;
'            AssessPosition;NextBestMove;
' Calledby:  ComputerMove
'---------------------------------------------------------------------
FUNCTION AlphaBeta% (Alpha%, Beta%, Distance%)
  NodeCount = NodeCount + 1           ' Additional position examined
  MVar(Depth, Depth).from = 0         ' Delete current main variant

        ' Position is always assessed, i.e. also inside of tree.
        ' This is necessary to recognize checkmate and stalemate. Also,
        ' the assessment is used to control search/extension.
        ' The number of nodes inside the tree is much smaller than that at
        ' the  Horizon. i.e. the program does not become significantly slower
        ' because of that.

        ' Assessment from the viewpoint of the player who is to make a move
  Value% = AssessPosition%(Alpha%, Beta%, Colour)

       ' In the case of check, the search is extended, by up to four
       ' half moves total. Otherwise it may happen that the search tree
       ' becomes extremely large thru mutual checks and capture sequences.
       ' As a rule, these move sequences are completely meaningless.

  Check% = InCheck
       ' Side that is moving is in check, extend the search
  Condition1% = (Check% = True% AND Depth + Distance% < MaxExtension + 1)
 
       ' By capture and re-capture on the same field, the search is
       ' extended if the material balance remains approximately
       ' the same and we didn't make too many extensions
       ' so far.
  Condition2% = (Depth >= 2 AND Depth + Distance% < MaxExtension)
  Condition2% = Condition2% AND TooFeld(Depth) = TooFeld(Depth - 1)
  Condition2% = Condition2% AND Value% >= Alpha% - 150 AND Value% <= Beta% + 150
 
  IF Condition1% OR Condition2% THEN Distance% = Distance% + 1

       ' If more than 5 moves were already performed in the quiescense search
       ' or the opponent is checkmated or we have reached maximunm search
       ' depth imposed by data structures, end the search.

  IF Distance% < -5 OR Value% = MateValue% - Depth OR Depth >= MaxDepth% THEN
    AlphaBeta% = Value%
    EXIT FUNCTION
  END IF

       ' If during the quiescence search - the player who is to move has a
       ' good position, the search is aborted since by definition the value
       ' can only become beter during the quiescense search.
       ' Warning: Aborts already at Distance 1, i.e. a half-move before the
       ' horizon, in case the player who is to move is not
       ' being checked. This is a selective deviation from
       ' the brute-force-Alpha-Beta scheme.

  IF Value% >= Beta% AND Distance% + Check% <= 1 THEN
    AlphaBeta% = Value%
    EXIT FUNCTION
  END IF

       ' Compute Moves. If Distance <= 0 then (quiescense search) only
       ' capture moves and promotion moves are computed.

  CALL GenerateMoves(Distance%)       ' Examine if any moves are available
  IF Distance% > 0 THEN               ' is directly done by determining
    BestValue% = -MateValue%         ' BestValue.
  ELSE                                ' In quiescence search, the current
    BestValue% = Value%            ' position assessment is the lower limit
  END IF                              ' of the search value.
                 
  i% = NextBestMove%                 ' Examine all moves in sorted sequence.
  DO WHILE i% >= 0                    ' So Long as any moves are left.
    CALL PerformMove(i%)
        ' NegaMax principal: The sign is reversed and
        ' the roles of alpha and beta exchanged.
    Value% = -AlphaBeta(-Beta%, -Alpha%, Distance% - 1)
    CALL TakeBackMove(i%)
    IF Value% > BestValue% THEN       ' new best value found
      BestValue% = Value%
      IF Value% >= Beta% THEN        ' Cutoff found
               ' Inside the tree, the main variants are still saved
        IF Distance% > 0 THEN CALL CopyMainVariant(i%)
        GOTO Done
      END IF
      IF Value% > Alpha% THEN       ' Value is the improved lower limit
        IF Distance% > 0 THEN CALL CopyMainVariant(i%)  ' Main variants Saved
          Alpha% = Value%            ' Improved alpha value
        END IF
      END IF
      i% = NextBestMove%
  LOOP

Done:
        ' A good move showing cutoff is entered into the killer table.
        ' Keep the best killer so far as the 2nd best killer.
  IF Value% >= Beta% AND i% >= 0 THEN
    KillerTab(Depth).Killer2 = KillerTab(Depth).Killer1
    KillerTab(Depth).Killer1.from = MoveStack(i%).from
    KillerTab(Depth).Killer1.too = MoveStack(i%).too
  END IF
 
        ' If player has no more legal moves...
  IF BestValue% = -(MateValue% - (Depth + 1)) THEN
    IF Check% = False% THEN          ' ... but isn't being checked
      AlphaBeta% = 0                ' it's stalemate
      EXIT FUNCTION
    END IF
  END IF
  AlphaBeta% = BestValue%
END FUNCTION

'--------------------------------------------------------------------
' AssessPosition: Function
' PositionsAssessment
' Returns value from the viewpoint of "Side".
' If material value deviates too far from the Alpha-Beta window
' only material is assessed.
' If "Side" is checkmating, returns (CheckMateValue -Depth).
' If "Side" is being checked, the variable InCheck is changed
' to "True".
' Warning: The Function assumes, both for check/checkmate and for the
'          king opposition, that "Side" is the player who is to make move.
'
' Local Variables:
' Value%, PosValue%, i%, j%, k%, Feld%, wBishlop%, bBishlop%
' PawnCount%, MatNum%, wRookon7%, bRookon2%
' wDeveloped%, bDeveloped%
' Calls:    InitAssessment; PerformMove; TakeBackMove; AttackingField;
' Calledby: AttackingField; BPAssessment; QPAssessment; CommandLoop;
'           AlphaBeta; ComputerMove
'--------------------------------------------------------------------
FUNCTION AssessPosition% (Alpha%, Beta%, Side%)
                        ' First examine if opponent is checkmated
                        ' of "Side" is being checked.
  IF Side% = White% THEN
    IF AttackingField%(bKing, White%) = True% THEN
      AssessPosition% = MateValue% - Depth
      EXIT FUNCTION
    END IF
    InCheck = AttackingField%(wKing, Black%)  ' Is white being checked?
  ELSE
    IF AttackingField%(wKing, Black%) = True% THEN
      AssessPosition% = MateValue% - Depth
      EXIT FUNCTION
    END IF
    InCheck = AttackingField%(bKing, White%)  ' Is Black being checked?
  END IF
            ' Positional Assessments factors do not outwiegh a heavy material
            ' imbalance. Hence, we omit the position assessment in this case
            ' Exception: The late endgame. Free Pawns have a high value.
            ' A minor piece without pawns is without effect.
  Value% = MaterialBalance(Depth)
  MatNum% = MaterialTotal(Depth)
  IF MatNum% > MatB% + MatB% THEN
    IF Value% < Alpha% - MaxPos% OR Value% > Beta% + MaxPos% THEN
      AssessPosition% = Value%
      EXIT FUNCTION
    END IF
  END IF
        ' Initialize the lines of rooks and pawns as well as the pawn controls.
        ' This could be computed incrementally significantly faster when
        ' performing (and taking back) the moves. However, this incremental
        ' computation is difficult and error-prone due to the special cases
        ' castling, EnPassant, and promotion.
        ' You could also build a list of pieces in 'IninAssessment' and
        ' in the second turn go thru this list (and no longer the entire
        ' board).
        ' The fastest solution consists of computing this list of pieces
        ' incrementally, too. This complicates, however, the functions
        ' "PerformMove" and "TakeBackMove".
        ' Following the  KISS prinipal (Keep It Simple Stupid) this
        ' solution was chosen in MiniMAX.
  CALL InitAssessment
  PosValue% = 0
        '  Used for Assessing the Bishop pair.
  bBishlop% = 0
  wBishlop% = 0
        '  Used for determining insufficient material.
  PawnCount% = 0
        ' White rooks on 7/8th row, black rooks on the 1/2nd
  wRookon7% = 0
  bRookon2% = 0
        ' Developement state: Castled and minor piece developed.
  wDeveloped% = Castling(White% + 1)
  bDeveloped% = Castling(Black% + 1)
        ' Knight on B1 developed?
  IF MoveControl(B1%) > 0 THEN wDeveloped% = wDeveloped% + 1
        ' Bishop on C1 developed?
  IF MoveControl(C1%) > 0 THEN wDeveloped% = wDeveloped% + 1
        ' Bishop on F1 developed?
  IF MoveControl(F1%) > 0 THEN wDeveloped% = wDeveloped% + 1
        ' Knight on G1 developed?
  IF MoveControl(G1%) > 0 THEN wDeveloped% = wDeveloped% + 1
        ' Knight on B8 developed?
  IF MoveControl(B8%) > 0 THEN bDeveloped% = bDeveloped% + 1
        ' Bishop on C8 developed?
  IF MoveControl(C8%) > 0 THEN bDeveloped% = bDeveloped% + 1
        ' Bishop on F8 developed?
  IF MoveControl(F8%) > 0 THEN bDeveloped% = bDeveloped% + 1
        ' Knight on G8 developed?
  IF MoveControl(G8%) > 0 THEN bDeveloped% = bDeveloped% + 1
        ' Read the entire board and assess each piece.
        ' The assessment takes white's point of view. For the black
        ' pieces, a positive assessment means that this evaluation
        ' is unfavorable for black.
  FOR i% = Column1% TO Column8%
    Feld% = i% * 10
    FOR j% = ARow% TO HRow%
      Feld% = Feld% + 1
      SELECT CASE Board(Feld%)
      CASE BK%
      IF MatNum% < EndgameMaterial% THEN   ' Endgame assessment for king
           ' Centralisze the king in the endgame.
        PosValue% = PosValue% - CenterTable(Feld%)
        ELSE
            ' Not yet castled, but castling rights lost
        IF Castling(Black% + 1) = False% THEN
          IF MoveControl(E8%) > 0 OR (MoveControl(H8%) > 0 AND MoveControl(A8%) > 0) THEN
            PosValue% = PosValue% + 35
          END IF
        END IF
             ' King preferably not in the center
        PosValue% = PosValue% + 4 * CenterTable(Feld%)
        FOR k% = -1 TO 1
             ' Bonus for pawn shield before the king
          IF Board(Feld% - 10 + k%) = BP% THEN PosValue% = PosValue% - 15
             ' Pawn shield 2 rows before the  king
          IF Board(Feld% - 20 + k%) = BP% THEN PosValue% = PosValue% - 6
             ' Deduct for half-open line occupied by
             ' enemy rook.
          IF Pawns(j% + k%).White = 0 AND Rooks(j% + k%).White > 0 THEN
            PosValue% = PosValue% + 12
          END IF
        NEXT k%
      END IF
      CASE BQ%
           ' Avoid Queen outings in the opening of the game.
      IF bDeveloped% < 4 THEN
        IF Feld% < A8% THEN PosValue% = PosValue% + 15
        ELSE     ' If development is completed, place the queen near
                 ' the enemy king. Column and row distance.
                 ' between queen and enemy king should be small.
        ColumnnDiff% = ABS(wKing \ 10 - Feld% \ 10)
        RownDiff% = ABS(wKing MOD 10 - Feld% MOD 10)
        PosValue% = PosValue% + 2 * (ColumnnDiff% + RownDiff%)
      END IF
      CASE BN%          ' Black Knight
      PosValue% = PosValue% - CenterTable(Feld%) / 2  ' Centralize knight
      CASE BB%
               ' Bishop should not impede black d7/e7 Pawns
               ' Bishop is also assessed by variable mobility
               ' in the move generator.
      IF (Feld% = D6% OR Feld% = E6%) AND Board(Feld% + 10) = BP% THEN
        PosValue% = PosValue% + 20
      END IF
      bBishlop% = bBishlop% + 1   ' No. of bishops for the bishop pair
      CASE BR%                    ' Rook influences the king assessment
                              ' Black rook has penetrated row 1 or 2
      IF Feld% <= H2% THEN bRookon2% = bRookon2% + 1
                        ' Bring rooks from a and h Columns into the center
      IF j% >= CRow% AND j% <= ERow% THEN PosValue% = PosValue% - 4
                                ' Rooks on half open and open lines
      IF Pawns(j%).White = 0 THEN
        PosValue% = PosValue% - 8   ' Rook on half open line
                            ' Rook on open line
        IF Pawns(j%).Black = 0 THEN PosValue% = PosValue% - 5
      END IF
      CASE BP%                     ' Pawn assessment is relatively  complex.
                                      ' thus it is accomplised in a seperate routine.
      PosValue% = PosValue% - BPAssessment%((Feld%), (i%), (j%), (bDeveloped%))
      PawnCount% = PawnCount% + 1
      CASE Empty%
                              ' Do nothing
      CASE WP%                      ' White Assessment is analogous to the black
      PosValue% = PosValue% + WPAssessment%((Feld%), (i%), (j%), (wDeveloped%))
      PawnCount% = PawnCount% + 1
      CASE WR%
                              ' White rook on 7th or 8th row
      IF Feld% >= A7% THEN wRookon7% = wRookon7% + 1
                         ' Bring rooks from a and h columns into the center
      IF j% >= CRow% AND j% <= ERow% THEN PosValue% = PosValue% + 4
                         ' Rooks on half open and open lines
      IF Pawns(j%).Black = 0 THEN
        PosValue% = PosValue% + 8       ' Rook on half open line
                       ' Rook on open line
        IF Pawns(j%).White = 0 THEN PosValue% = PosValue% + 5
      END IF
      CASE WB%
                       ' Bishop should not block pawns on D3/E3.
      IF (Feld% = D3% OR Feld% = E3%) AND Board(Feld% - 10) = WP% THEN
        PosValue% = PosValue% - 20
      END IF
      wBishlop% = wBishlop% + 1
      CASE WN%
      PosValue% = PosValue% + CenterTable(Feld%) \ 2
      CASE WQ%
                      ' Avoid queen outings in the begining of the game.
      IF wDeveloped% < 4 THEN
        IF Feld% > H1% THEN PosValue% = PosValue% - 15
        ELSE              ' Place the queen near the enemy king.
                              ' Column and row distance.
                              ' between queen and enemy king should be small.
        ColumnnDiff% = ABS(bKing \ 10 - Feld% \ 10)
        RownDiff% = ABS(bKing MOD 10 - Feld% MOD 10)
        PosValue% = PosValue% - 2 * (ColumnnDiff% + RownDiff%)
      END IF
      CASE WK%
      IF MatNum% < EndgameMaterial% THEN  ' Endgame assessment for king
                                 ' Centralize the king in the endgame
      PosValue% = PosValue% + CenterTable(Feld%)
                                 ' Near opposition of the kings
      IF ABS(Feld% - bKing) = 20 OR ABS(Feld% - bKing) = 2 THEN
        k% = 10
                                 ' Opposition in the pawn endgame
        IF MatNum% = 0 THEN k% = 30
        IF Colour = White% THEN
          PosValue% = PosValue% - k%
          ELSE
          PosValue% = PosValue% + k%
        END IF
      END IF
      ELSE
                                 ' Not castled yet, but Castling rights lost.
      IF Castling(White% + 1) = False% THEN
        IF MoveControl(E1%) > 0 OR (MoveControl(H1%) > 0 AND MoveControl(A1%) > 0) THEN
          PosValue% = PosValue% - 35
        END IF
      END IF
                                 ' king preferable not in the center
      PosValue% = PosValue% - 4 * CenterTable(Feld%)
      FOR k% = -1 TO 1
                                 ' Bonus for pawn shield before the king
        IF Board(Feld% + 10 + k%) = WP% THEN PosValue% = PosValue% + 15
                                 ' Pawns shield 2 rows before the king
        IF Board(Feld% + 20 + k%) = WP% THEN PosValue% = PosValue% + 6
                                 ' Deduct for half open lines occupied by
                                 ' enemy rook.
        IF Pawns(j% + k%).Black = 0 AND Rooks(j% + k%).Black > 0 THEN
          PosValue% = PosValue% - 12
        END IF
      NEXT k%
    END IF
    END SELECT
    NEXT j%
  NEXT i%
               ' No pawns left on board and insufficient material
               ' Recognized all elementary draw situations.
               ' KK, KLK, KSK, KSSK, KLKL, KSKL.
   IF PawnCount% = 0 THEN
      Bed1% = MatNum% <= MatB%         ' Less than a bishop
      Bed2% = MatNum% = 2 * MatN%      ' Two knights
                   ' Two bishops, but material differece less than a pawn
      Bed3% = MatNum% <= 2 * MatB% AND ABS(MaterialBalance(Depth)) < MatP%
      IF Bed1% OR Bed2% OR Bed3% THEN
         AssessPosition% = 0
         EXIT FUNCTION
      END IF
   END IF
               ' Bishop pare bonus for White
   IF wBishlop% >= 2 THEN PosValue% = PosValue% + 15
                        ' Bishop pair bonus for Black
   IF bBishlop% >= 2 THEN PosValue% = PosValue% - 15
                        ' White rooks on 7/8th row and black king also
                        ' on these rows
   IF wRookon7% > 0 AND bKing >= A7% THEN
      PosValue% = PosValue% + 10
                        ' Double rooks extra dangerous
      IF wRookon7% > 1 THEN PosValue% = PosValue% + 25
   END IF
                        ' Black rooks on 1/2nd row and white king also
                        ' on these rows
   IF bRookon2% > 0 AND wKing <= H2% THEN
      PosValue% = PosValue% - 10
      IF bRookon2% > 1 THEN PosValue% = PosValue% - 25
   END IF
   IF Side% = Black% THEN        ' Assessment was from white's point of view,
      PosValue% = -PosValue%     ' changed sign for black
   END IF
                ' Consider the mobility of bishop and rooks
                ' by the move generator. Mobility(Depth) is the
                ' mobility of the oppenent, Mobility(Depth-1) that of
                ' "Side" (before the oppenent has made a move).
   IF Depth >= 1 THEN
      PosValue% = PosValue% - ((Mobility(Depth) - Mobility(Depth - 1)) / 16)
   END IF
   AssessPosition% = Value% + PosValue%
END FUNCTION

'--------------------------------------------------------------------
' AttackingField: Function
'   Examine whether Player "Side" is attacking the field "Field".
'   Returns "True" if field is attacked by "Side", otherwise "False".
' Algorithm: Imagine "Field" occupied by a super piece, that can move
'            in any direction. If this super piece 'captures' e.g.
'            a rook belonging to "Side" then the rook is actually
'            attacking the field.
'
' Locale Variables: i%, Direction%, too%, Piece%, slide%
' Calls:
' Calledby: AssessPosition; GenerateMoves; InputMove; MoveList
'--------------------------------------------------------------------
FUNCTION AttackingField% (Feld%, Side%)
     ' First test the special case of pawns. They have the same direction
     ' as bishops but don't slide.

  IF Side% = White% THEN
     ' Must go in the opposite direction of pawns. D5 is attacked
     ' by pawn on E4.
    IF Board(Feld% - 9) = WP% OR Board(Feld% - 11) = WP% THEN
      AttackingField% = True%
      EXIT FUNCTION
    END IF
  END IF
  IF Side% = Black% THEN
    IF Board(Feld% + 9) = BP% OR Board(Feld% + 11) = BP% THEN
      AttackingField% = True%
      EXIT FUNCTION
    END IF
  END IF

     ' Examine the knight
  FOR i% = 8 TO 15                    ' Knight directions
    too% = Feld% + Offset(i%)
    IF Board(too%) = Empty% OR Board(too%) = Edge% THEN GOTO w1
    IF Side% = White% THEN
      IF Board(too%) = WN% THEN
        AttackingField% = True%
        EXIT FUNCTION
      END IF
      ELSEIF Board(too%) = BN% THEN
        AttackingField% = True%
        EXIT FUNCTION
      END IF
w1:
  NEXT i%

      ' Examine sliding pieces and king.
  FOR i% = 0 TO 7
    too% = Feld%
    Direction% = Offset(i%)
    Slide% = 0
Slideon1:
    Slide% = Slide% + 1
    too% = too% + Direction%
    IF Board(too%) = Empty% THEN
      GOTO Slideon1
    END IF
         ' When the edge is reached then new direction
    IF Board(too%) = Edge% THEN GOTO w2

         ' Hit a piece. Piece must be color side.
         ' Also, the current direction must be a possible move direction
         ' of the piece. The king can only do one step.

    Piece% = Board(too%)
    IF Side% = White% THEN
      IF Piece% > 0 THEN            ' White Ppece
        IF Piece% = WK% THEN
          IF Slide% <= 1 THEN     ' king is slow paced
            AttackingField% = True%
            EXIT FUNCTION
          END IF
          ELSE
               ' As far as sliding pieces are concerned, the current
               ' direction muse be a possible move diection of the piece.

          IF FigOffset(Piece%).Start <= i% THEN
            IF FigOffset(Piece%).Ends >= i% THEN
              AttackingField% = True%
              EXIT FUNCTION
            END IF
          END IF
        END IF
      END IF
      ELSE
      IF Piece% < 0 THEN            ' Black piece
        IF Piece% = BK% THEN
          IF Slide% <= 1 THEN
            AttackingField% = True%
            EXIT FUNCTION
          END IF
          ELSE
          IF FigOffset(-Piece%).Start <= i% THEN
            IF FigOffset(-Piece%).Ends >= i% THEN
              AttackingField% = True%
              EXIT FUNCTION
            END IF
          END IF
        END IF
      END IF
    END IF
w2:
  NEXT i%

     ' All directions exhausted, didn't hit a piece.
     ' I.e. Side in not attacking the field.

  AttackingField% = False%
END FUNCTION

'--------------------------------------------------------------------
' BPAssessment: Function
' Assessment of one black pawn. Besides passed parameters, the
' pawn controls, pawn lines, and rook lines must be correctly
' engaged.
' Returns the assessment from black's point of view.
' Calls:
' Calledby: AssessPosition
'--------------------------------------------------------------------
FUNCTION BPAssessment% (Feld%, Column%, row%, developed%)
   Column% = (Column8% + Column1%) - Column%   ' Flip row. This makes higher
                                               'row = better as for white.
   IF MaterialTotal(Depth) > EndgameMaterial% THEN   ' Opening or midgame
      Value% = bPFieldValue(Feld%)
         ' If development incomplete, don't push edge pawns forward
      IF developed% < 4 THEN
         IF (row% >= FRow% OR row% <= BRow%) AND Column% > Column3% THEN
            Value% = Value% - 15
         END IF
      END IF
   ELSE                                ' In the endgame, all lines are equally good.
                                       ' Bring pawns forward.
      Value% = Column% * 4
   END IF

      ' Is the pawn isolated?
      ' Edge pawns don't require extra treatment.  Pawns(ARow-1) is
      ' the left edge, Pawns(HRow+1) the right edge. No pawn is
      ' placed on these edges.
   IF Pawns(row% - 1).Black = 0 AND Pawns(row% + 1).Black = 0 THEN
      Value% = Value% - 12             ' Isolated
         ' Isolated double pawn
      IF Pawns(row%).Black > 1 THEN Value% = Value% - 12
   END IF
 
      ' double pawn
   IF Pawns(row%).Black > 1 THEN Value% = Value% - 15

      ' Duo or guarded pawns get a bonus
      ' e.g. e5,d5 is a Duo, d6 guards e5
   IF PawnControlled(Feld%).Black > 0 OR PawnControlled(Feld% - 10).Black > 0 THEN
      Value% = Value% + Column%
   END IF
   IF Pawns(row%).White = 0 THEN       ' Half-open column
      ' Pawn left behind on half-open column:
      ' Left-behind pawn is not guarded by its fellow pawns..
      Condition1% = PawnControlled(Feld%).Black = 0
         ' ... and can't advance because of enemy pawns
         ' control the field in front of him.
      Condition2% = PawnControlled(Feld% - 10).White > PawnControlled(Feld% - 10).Black
      IF Condition1% AND Condition2% THEN
         Value% = Value% - 10
            ' Rook impeded by left-behind pawn
         IF Rooks(row%).White > 0 THEN Value% = Value% - 8
      ELSE
         ' Pawn is a free pawn, on an half-open column and the
         ' fields ahead on his column are not controlled by
         ' enemy pawns.
         FOR j% = Feld% TO A3% STEP -10           ' Until 3rd Row
            IF PawnControlled(j%).White > 0 THEN
               BPAssessment% = Value%
               EXIT FUNCTION
            END IF
         NEXT j%
            ' Found a free pawn. In the endgame, a free pawn is more important
            ' than in midgame.
         IF MaterialTotal(Depth) < EndgameMaterial% THEN
            Value% = Value% + Column% * 16        ' The more advanced, the better
               ' Rook guards a free pawn on the same column
            IF Rooks(row%).Black > 0 THEN Value% = Value% + Column% * 2
               ' Enemy rook on the same column
            IF Rooks(row%).White > 0 THEN Value% = Value% - Column% * 2
               ' Pure pawn endgame. Free pawn particularly valuable.
            IF MaterialTotal(Depth) = 0 THEN Value% = Value% + Column% * 8
               ' Guarded free pawn
            IF PawnControlled(Feld%).Black > 0 OR PawnControlled(Feld% - 10).Black > 0 THEN
               Value% = Value% + Column% * 4
            END IF
               ' Free pawn blocked by a white piece. This piece is not
               ' threatened by fellow pawns.
            IF Board(Feld% - 10) < 0 AND PawnControlled(Feld% - 10).Black = 0 THEN
               Value% = Value% - Column% * 4
            END IF
         ELSE                          ' Free pawn in the midgame
            Value% = Value% + Column% * 8
               ' Guarded free pawn
            IF PawnControlled(Feld%).Black > 0 OR PawnControlled(Feld% - 10).Black > 0 THEN
               Value% = Value% + Column% * 2
            END IF
         END IF
      END IF
   END IF
   BPAssessment% = Value%
END FUNCTION

'--------------------------------------------------------------------
'  CommandLoop:
'  Reads the player's commands in a loop and calls
'  the appropriate functions. The loop is terminated by
'  the "EN" command.
'  If the input is not a command it is interpreted as a
'  move (on the form "e2e4" (from-field,to-field).
'  and ignored as a command.     See also: PrintLogo
'  Calls:    Gameover; Initialize; Displayboard; InputPosition;
'            ComputerMove; Flipboard; MoveList; MoveBack;
'            ComputingDepth; InitGameTree; AssessPosition;
'  Calledby: Main
'--------------------------------------------------------------------
SUB CommandLoop
   Ends% = False%
   DO
      CALL DisplayBoard(False%) ' my new line
      PRINT
      INPUT "Your Input: ", Commands$
      Commands$ = UCASE$(Commands$)    ' Change to upper case
      SELECT CASE Commands$
         CASE "EN"
            Ends% = True%
            CALL GameOver
         CASE "NG"
            PRINT " New Game"
            CALL Initialize
         CASE "DB"
            CALL DisplayBoard(False%)
         CASE "CP"
            CALL InputPosition
         CASE "PL"
            CALL ComputerMove
         CASE "FB"
            CALL FlipBoard
         CASE "PR"
            PRINT " Printing ";
            IF Printing = False% THEN
               Printing = True%
               PRINT "on"
            ELSE
               Printing = False%
               PRINT "off"
            END IF
         CASE "MM"
            PRINT " Player-Player ";
            IF PlayerPlayer = False% THEN
               PlayerPlayer = True%
               PRINT "on"
            ELSE
               PlayerPlayer = False%
               PRINT "off"
            END IF
         CASE "ML"
            CALL MoveList
         CASE "TB"
            CALL MoveBack
         CASE "SD"
            CALL ComputingDepth
         CASE "DA"
            CALL InitGameTree
            PRINT " Assessment= "; AssessPosition%(-MateValue%, MateValue%, Colour)
         CASE ELSE
            IF InputMove%(Commands$) = False% THEN
               PRINT " Illegal move or unknown Command"
            ELSEIF PlayerPlayer = False% THEN
               CALL ComputerMove
            END IF
      END SELECT
   LOOP WHILE Ends% = False%
END SUB

'--------------------------------------------------------------------
' ComputerMove:
' Computes the next computer move.
' The search is iteratively deepened until MinDepth.
' The search uses "Aspiration"-Alpha-Beta.
' The search process can be interupted by
' a keypress.
' If the search wasn't interupted and no checkmate/stalemate
' exists, the best move is performed.
' Calls:    InitGameTree; GenerateMoves; DisplayMove; TakeBackMove;
'           PerformMove; CopyMainVariant; DisplayMVar; PrintMove
'           AssessPosition;
' Calledby: CopyMainVariant; AlphaBeta; AssessPosition; CommandLoop
'--------------------------------------------------------------------
SUB ComputerMove
   DIM tmp AS MoveType                 ' Temporary MoveType Variable

   CALL InitGameTree
      ' Assess the initial position. End search if opponent is already checkmate.
   Value% = AssessPosition%(-MateValue%, MateValue%, Colour)
   IF Value% = MateValue% THEN
      PRINT " Checkmate!"
      EXIT SUB
   END IF

      ' Store "Checked state". Required to recognize
      ' stalemate at the end of the search.
   Check% = InCheck
   NodeCount = 0

      ' Start time of the computation. Used for displaying nodes/second.
   Starttime = TIMER

      ' Generate all pseudo-legal moves
   CALL GenerateMoves(1)

      ' You should/could remove all illegal moves from the MoveStack
      ' here and only keep computing with legal moves.
      ' (Has only an optical effect, however, as the search is always aborted
      ' immediately after performing an illegal move).

      ' Iterative deepening: Distance is the number of half-moves until the
      ' horizon. Is not equal to the depth, however, as the distance can
      ' increased during the search process (e.g. by checks).

   FOR Distance% = 1 TO MinDepth
      IF Distance% = 1 THEN            ' On Depth 1, we compute with open windows
         Alpha% = -MateValue%          ' We have no good assessment value for
         Beta% = MateValue%            ' the position yet.
      ELSE                             ' On the higher levels, the result shold not
         Beta% = Alpha% + 100          ' differ significantly from the result of the
         Alpha% = Alpha% - 100         ' previous depth.
      END IF

         ' For capture moves and checks, the search is extended.
         ' this variable limits the extensions.
      MaxExtension = Distance% + 3
'      PRINT
'     PRINT
      LOCATE 0 + Distance%, 52
      PRINT Distance%;
'      PRINT " Alpha-Beta Window = ["; Alpha%; ","; Beta%; "]"
      MovesInLine% = 0
'      PRINT " ";

         ' Compute the value of each move
      FOR i% = 0 TO StackLimit(1) - 1
         IF INKEY$ <> "" THEN
            ' Stop the calculation if a key is pressed.
            PRINT " Computation interrupted!"
            EXIT SUB
         END IF

         MovesInLine% = MovesInLine% + 1
            ' Initialize the main variant and display
            ' the move just examined.
         MVar(Depth, Depth).from = 0
         CALL DisplayMove(i%)
         IF MovesInLine% MOD 9 = 8 THEN   ' Eight moves per line
'            PRINT
            MovesInLine% = 0
'            PRINT " ";
         END IF
            ' Perform move, compute value, take back move.
         CALL PerformMove((i%))
         Value% = -AlphaBeta(-Beta%, -Alpha%, Distance% - 1)
         CALL TakeBackMove((i%))
         IF i% = 0 THEN                ' Was it the first move (the best yet)?
                                       ' This move requires an exact value.
            IF Value% < Alpha% THEN
               ' Search for the best move until now 'falls down' out the
               ' window (the program understands the mishap). Requires
               ' a renewed search with windows opened 'below'.
               Alpha% = -MateValue%
               Beta% = Value%
'               PRINT "? ["; Alpha%; ","; Beta%; "]"
               MovesInLine% = 0
'               PRINT " ";
               CALL PerformMove((i%))
               Value% = -AlphaBeta(-Beta%, -Alpha%, Distance% - 1)
               CALL TakeBackMove((i%))
            ELSEIF Value% >= Beta% THEN  ' Falls up
               Alpha% = Value%
               Beta% = MateValue%
'               PRINT "! ["; Alpha%; ","; Beta%; "]"
               MovesInLine% = 0
'               PRINT " ";
               CALL PerformMove((i%))
               Value% = -AlphaBeta(-Beta%, -Alpha%, Distance% - 1)
               CALL TakeBackMove((i%))
            END IF

               ' There is just a slim chance that a subsequent move is             t,
               ' even better. We continue calculating with a null window
               ' as this expedites the search.

            Alpha% = Value%
            Beta% = Alpha% + 1
'            PRINT
            LOCATE 15, 51
            PRINT " Best Move: ";
            CALL DisplayMove(i%)
            LOCATE 16, 51
            PRINT "Value ="; Value%
            CALL CopyMainVariant(i%)
'            LOCATE 0 + Distance%, 58
            CALL DisplayMVar
            MovesInLine% = 0
'            PRINT " ";
         ELSE                          ' Already computed the best move yet to SearchDepth
            IF Value% > Alpha% THEN
               ' New best move found. Currently, it is only known
               ' that it is better. The exact value must be computed
               ' again with an open window.
               BestValue% = Alpha%
               Alpha% = Value%
               Beta% = MateValue%
               CALL PerformMove((i%))
               Value% = -AlphaBeta(-Beta%, -Alpha%, Distance% - 1)
               CALL TakeBackMove((i%))

                  ' Is it also better with the open window?
                  ' Solely applying alpha-beta, the move must always
                  ' be better with the open window. Since the window is
                  ' considered by the extensions and in the selectivity,
                  'the outcome may be different
                  ' in our case.
           
               IF Value% > BestValue% THEN
                  Alpha% = Value%
                  Beta% = Alpha% + 1
'                  PRINT
'                  PRINT " Best Move: ";
'                  CALL DisplayMove(i%)
'                  PRINT "Value ="; Value%
                  CALL CopyMainVariant(i%)
'                  LOCATE 0 + Distance%, 54
                  CALL DisplayMVar
                  MovesInLine% = 0
'                  PRINT " ";
                     ' Place the best move at the start of the MoveList.
                     ' Push the other moves one position up.
                  tmp = MoveStack(i%)
                  FOR j% = i% TO 1 STEP -1
                     MoveStack(j%) = MoveStack(j% - 1)
                  NEXT j%
                  MoveStack(0) = tmp
               END IF
            END IF
         END IF
      NEXT i%
   NEXT Distance%

   Endtime = TIMER

   IF Alpha% > -(MateValue% - 1) THEN
'      PRINT
'      PRINT
'      PRINT " Computer Player: ";
      CALL DisplayMove(0)              ' Best Move is always sorted into
                                       ' position 0 of the Movestacks
'      PRINT
'      LOCATE 17, 51
'      PRINT " Value ="; Alpha%; ", Positions ="; NodeCount;
      Time% = Endtime - Starttime
      Comtime% = Comtime% + Time%: LOCATE 20, 50: PRINT "TOT "; Comtime%
         ' Prevent division by zero on nodes/second
      IF Time% = 0 THEN Time% = 1
      LOCATE 18, 51
      PRINT ", Time="; Time%; "Sec., Positions/Sec. ="; NodeCount \ Time%
             
      CALL PerformMove(0)
      CALL PrintMove(0)
      IF Alpha% >= MateValue% - 10 THEN
'         PRINT
         PRINT " I checkmate in "; (MateValue% - 2 - Alpha%) \ 2; " moves   "
      ELSE
         IF Alpha% <= -MateValue% + 10 THEN
'            PRINT
            PRINT " I'm checkmate in "; (Alpha% + MateValue% - 1) \ 2; " moves"
         END IF
      END IF
   ELSE
      IF Check% = True% THEN
         PRINT " Congratulations: MiniMAX is checkmated!"
      ELSE
         PRINT " Stalemate!"
      END IF
   END IF
END SUB

' -----------------------------------------------------------------
' ComputingDepth:
' Input minimum computing depth
' Calls:    None
' Calledby:
' -----------------------------------------------------------------
SUB ComputingDepth
   PRINT " Computing depth is"; MinDepth
   INPUT " New computing depth: ", Inputs$
   tmp% = VAL(Inputs$)
   IF tmp% > 0 AND tmp% < MaxDepth% - 9 THEN
      MinDepth = tmp%
   ELSE
      PRINT " Invalid computing depth"
   END IF
END SUB

'--------------------------------------------------------------------
' CopyMainVariant:
' Saves the current move in the Main variant and copies
' the continuation that was found on the next depth.
' Calls:
' Calledby: ComputerMove;
'--------------------------------------------------------------------
SUB CopyMainVariant (CurrMove%)
      ' New main variant is a continuation of this variant
   MVar(Depth, Depth).from = MoveStack(CurrMove%).from
   MVar(Depth, Depth).too = MoveStack(CurrMove%).too
   i% = 0
   DO
      i% = i% + 1
      MVar(Depth, Depth + i%) = MVar(Depth + 1, Depth + i%)
   LOOP UNTIL MVar(Depth + 1, Depth + i%).from = 0
END SUB

'--------------------------------------------------------------------
' DisplayBoard:
' Display of the game board and the game/Board state
' Only displays game/board state if "BoardOnly" is false
'
' The SGN-Function (Sign) returns the sign, i.e. -1 or +1
' The ABS-Function returns the absolute value (without sign)
' Calls:    Fieldnotation
' Calledby:
'--------------------------------------------------------------------
SUB DisplayBoard (BoardOnly%)
     ' Display board
   LOCATE 1, 1
   FOR i% = Column8% TO Column1% STEP -1      ' For all rows
      PRINT
      PRINT i% - 1; "  ";                     ' Row coordinates
      FOR j% = ARow% TO HRow%                 ' For all lines
         Piece% = Board(i% * 10 + j%)
         Side% = SGN(Piece%)                  ' Compute color from piece.
                                              ' Empty field has Color 0
         Piece% = ABS(Piece%)                 ' Piece type
         PRINT ColourSymbol(Side% + 1); FigSymbol(Piece%); " ";
      NEXT j%
   NEXT i%
   PRINT
   PRINT "    ";
   FOR j% = ARow% TO HRow%                    ' Line coordinates 'a'...'h'
      PRINT "  "; CHR$(ASC("a") - 1 + j%);
   NEXT j%
   PRINT                                      ' Empty line
   PRINT                                      ' Empty line
   EXIT SUB 'my new line

   IF BoardOnly% THEN EXIT SUB

      ' Remaining board/game state

   IF Colour = White% THEN
      PRINT " White";
   ELSE
      PRINT " Black";
   END IF
   PRINT " is to make a move"

   PRINT " Material balance = "; MaterialBalance(Depth)
   PRINT " En Passant Field = "; Fieldnotation$(EpField(Depth))

      ' Castling is in principle possible if the king and appropriate
      ' rook have not moved.
 
   PRINT " Castling state black = ";
   IF MoveControl(E8%) + MoveControl(H8%) = 0 THEN PRINT "0-0  ";
   IF MoveControl(E8%) + MoveControl(A8%) = 0 THEN PRINT "0-0-0";
   PRINT
   PRINT " Castling State white    = ";
   IF MoveControl(E1%) + MoveControl(H1%) = 0 THEN PRINT "0-0  ";
   IF MoveControl(E1%) + MoveControl(A1%) = 0 THEN PRINT "0-0-0";
   PRINT
END SUB

'--------------------------------------------------------------------
' DisplayMove:
' Display the current move in chess notation.
' Castling is 'E1-G1' and not O-O
' CurrMove% is the index of the move into MoveStack.
' Calls:
' Calledby:
'--------------------------------------------------------------------
SUB DisplayMove (CurrMove%)
   from% = MoveStack(CurrMove%).from
   too% = MoveStack(CurrMove%).too
'   PRINT FigSymbol(ABS(Board(from%)));           ' Type of piece
'   PRINT Fieldnotation$(from%);                  ' Initial field
   IF MoveStack(CurrMove%).CapturedPiece = Empty% THEN
'      PRINT "-";                                 ' Normal move
   ELSE
'      PRINT "x";                                 ' Capture move
   END IF
'   PRINT Fieldnotation$(too%);                   ' Target field

      ' If promoted, add promotion piece
   IF MoveStack(CurrMove%).PromotedPiece <> Empty% THEN
'      PRINT FigSymbol(MoveStack(CurrMove%).PromotedPiece);
   END IF
'   PRINT "  ";
END SUB

'--------------------------------------------------------------------
' DisplayMVar:
' Display the current main variant, Only the from-to fields
' are output.
' Calls:    Fieldnotation;
' Calledby:
'--------------------------------------------------------------------
SUB DisplayMVar
   'PRINT " Main variants: ";
   i% = 0
 
   DO WHILE MVar(0, i%).from <> 0
      LOCATE 1 + i%, 56
      PRINT Fieldnotation$(MVar(0, i%).from); "-";
      PRINT Fieldnotation$(MVar(0, i%).too); " ";
      i% = i% + 1
   LOOP
   'PRINT
END SUB

'-----------------------------------------------------------------------
' Fieldnotation: Function
' Converts internal FieldNumber to Fieldnotation.
' Returns '--' if the number is not on the board
'
' Notes:
' The \ Operator is integer division.
' The Mod (Modulo) operator returns the remainder of an intege division.
' Calls:
' Calledby:
'-----------------------------------------------------------------------
FUNCTION Fieldnotation$ (Fieldnum%)
      ' See if correct
   IF Fieldnum% < A1% OR Fieldnum% > H8% OR Board(Fieldnum%) = Edge% THEN
      Fieldnotation$ = "--"
   ELSE
      s$ = CHR$(ASC("A") - 1 + Fieldnum% MOD 10)          ' Line
      s$ = s$ + CHR$(ASC("1") - 2 + Fieldnum% \ 10)       ' Row
      Fieldnotation$ = LCASE$(s$)
   END IF
END FUNCTION

'--------------------------------------------------------------------
' Fieldnumber: Function
' Converts Fieldnotation (e.g. "A1") to internal Fieldnumber.
' Returns "Illegal" if input is incorrect
' Line coordinates must be passed as uppercase letters.
' Calls:
' Calledby: Fieldnotation
'--------------------------------------------------------------------
FUNCTION Fieldnumber% (Fieldnote$)
   row$ = LEFT$(Fieldnote$, 1)
   Column$ = MID$(Fieldnote$, 2, 1)
   ' See if correct
   IF row$ < "A" OR row$ > "H" OR Column$ < "1" OR Column$ > "8" THEN
      Fieldnumber% = Illegal%
      EXIT FUNCTION
   END IF
   Fieldnumber% = (ASC(row$) - ASC("A") + 1) + 10 * (ASC(Column$) - ASC("1") + 2)
END FUNCTION

'---------------------------------------------------------------------
' FlipBoard:
' Flips the representation of the board on the monitor
' Note: Not implemented in version 1.0
' Calls:
' Calledby:
'---------------------------------------------------------------------
SUB FlipBoard
END SUB

'--------------------------------------------------------------------
' GameOver:
' Stores the game and game parameters on the harddisk.
' Note: Not implemented in version 1.0
' Calls:
' Calledby:
'--------------------------------------------------------------------
SUB GameOver
END SUB

'--------------------------------------------------------------------
' GenerateMoves:
' Generates moves and places them on the MoveStack
' Returns the number of moves.
' If "AllMoves" is greater than 0, all pseudo-legal
' moves are produced, otherwise all pseudo-legal capture moves,
' promotions, En Passant, and castling moves.
' Calls:    SavePromotion; SaveMove; SaveCaptureMove; SaveEpMove
'           AttackingField;
' Calledby: AttackingField, InputMove, MoveList, AlphaBeta,ComputerMove
'--------------------------------------------------------------------
SUB GenerateMoves (AllMoves%)
  Index = StackLimit(Depth)         ' Start of MoveList on current depth
  Mobility(Depth) = 0

          ' Search the board for pieces

  FOR from% = A1% TO H8%
    Piece% = Board(from%)
          ' Empty and edge fields make no moves
    IF Piece% = Empty% OR Piece% = Edge% THEN GOTO NextField
          ' Piece must also be of correct color
    IF Colour = White% AND Piece% < 0 THEN GOTO NextField
    IF Colour = Black% AND Piece% > 0 THEN GOTO NextField
    Piece% = ABS(Piece%)            ' Type of Piece. Color doesn't influence
                                    ' (except for pawns) the move diretion.
    IF Piece% = WP% THEN            ' Pawns moves
      IF Colour = White% THEN
        IF Board(from% + 10) = Empty% THEN
          IF from% >= A7% THEN
            CALL SavePromotion(from%, from% + 10)
          ELSEIF AllMoves% > 0 THEN
            CALL SaveMove(from%, from% + 10)
                  ' double-step possible?
            IF from% <= H2% AND Board(from% + 20) = Empty% THEN
              CALL SaveMove(from%, from% + 20)
                     '  Move has already increased Index
              MoveStack(Index - 1).EpField = from% + 10
            END IF
          END IF
        END IF
        IF Board(from% + 11) < 0 THEN  ' Pawn can capture black piece
          IF from% >= A7% THEN
            CALL SavePromotion(from%, from% + 11)
          ELSE
            CALL SaveCaptureMove(from%, from% + 11)
          END IF
        END IF
        IF Board(from% + 9) < 0 THEN   ' Likewise in other capture direction
          IF from% >= A7% THEN
            CALL SavePromotion(from%, from% + 9)
          ELSE
            CALL SaveCaptureMove(from%, from% + 9)
          END IF
        END IF
        ELSEIF Colour = Black% THEN   ' Same for black pawns
        IF Board(from% - 10) = Empty% THEN
          IF from% <= H2% THEN
            CALL SavePromotion(from%, from% - 10)
          ELSEIF AllMoves% > 0 THEN
            CALL SaveMove(from%, from% - 10)
                     ' double-steps possible?
            IF from% >= A7% AND Board(from% - 20) = Empty% THEN
              CALL SaveMove(from%, from% - 20)
                        ' Move has already increased Index
              MoveStack(Index - 1).EpField = from% - 10
            END IF
          END IF
        END IF
               ' For black pawns also examine the edge,
               ' not for white as the edge > 0.
        IF Board(from% - 11) > 0 AND Board(from% - 11) <> Edge% THEN
          IF from% <= H2% THEN
            CALL SavePromotion(from%, from% - 11)
          ELSE
            CALL SaveCaptureMove(from%, from% - 11)
          END IF
        END IF
        IF Board(from% - 9) > 0 AND Board(from% - 9) <> Edge% THEN
          IF from% <= H2% THEN
            CALL SavePromotion(from%, from% - 9)
          ELSE
            CALL SaveCaptureMove(from%, from% - 9)
          END IF
        END IF
      END IF
      GOTO NextField                ' Examine next field
      END IF

         ' Moves for all other pieces are computed
         ' by way of move offset.

      Longpaths% = FigOffset(Piece%).Longpaths
      FOR i% = FigOffset(Piece%).Start TO FigOffset(Piece%).Ends
        Direction% = Offset(i%)
        too% = from%
Slideon2:
        too% = too% + Direction%
        IF Board(too%) = Empty% THEN
          IF AllMoves% > 0 THEN
            CALL SaveMove(from%, too%)
          END IF
          IF Longpaths% THEN         ' Bishop, rook and queen
            GOTO Slideon2
          ELSE                       ' Knight and king
          GOTO NextDirection
        END IF
      END IF
      IF Board(too%) = Edge% THEN   ' Hit the edge, keep searching
        GOTO NextDirection         ' in an another direction.
      END IF
            ' Hit a piece. Must be of the correct color.
      CaptureMove% = Colour = White% AND Board(too%) < 0
      CaptureMove% = CaptureMove% OR (Colour = Black% AND Board(too%) > 0)
      IF CaptureMove% THEN CALL SaveCaptureMove(from%, too%)
NextDirection:
    NEXT i%
NextField:
   NEXT from%

     ' En Passant Move

   IF EpField(Depth) <> Illegal% THEN
     ep% = EpField(Depth)
     IF Colour = White% THEN
       IF Board(ep% - 9) = WP% THEN
         CALL SaveEpMove(ep% - 9, ep%, ep% - 10)
       END IF
       IF Board(ep% - 11) = WP% THEN
         CALL SaveEpMove(ep% - 11, ep%, ep% - 10)
       END IF
       ELSE
         IF Board(ep% + 9) = BP% THEN
           CALL SaveEpMove(ep% + 9, ep%, ep% + 10)
         END IF
         IF Board(ep% + 11) = BP% THEN
           CALL SaveEpMove(ep% + 11, ep%, ep% + 10)
         END IF
     END IF
   END IF

      ' Castling is also performed in the quiescence search because it has a
      ' strong influence on the assessment. (Whether this is appropriate,
      ' is a matter of dispute even amoung leading programmers).

      ' Compute castling
   IF Colour = White% THEN
     IF wKing = E1% AND MoveControl(E1%) = 0 THEN
         ' Is short castling allowed?
       OK% = Board(H1%) = WR% AND MoveControl(H1%) = 0
       OK% = OK% AND Board(F1%) = Empty% AND Board(G1%) = Empty%
       OK% = OK% AND AttackingField%(E1%, Black%) = False%
       OK% = OK% AND AttackingField%(F1%, Black%) = False%
       OK% = OK% AND AttackingField%(G1%, Black%) = False%
       IF OK% THEN
         CALL SaveMove(E1%, G1%)    ' Save king's move
         MoveStack(Index - 1).CastlingNr = ShortCastlingMove%
       END IF
            ' Is long castling allowed?
       OK% = Board(A1%) = WR% AND MoveControl(A1%) = 0
       OK% = OK% AND Board(D1%) = Empty%
       OK% = OK% AND Board(C1%) = Empty%
       OK% = OK% AND Board(B1%) = Empty%
       OK% = OK% AND AttackingField%(E1%, Black%) = False%
       OK% = OK% AND AttackingField%(D1%, Black%) = False%
       OK% = OK% AND AttackingField%(C1%, Black%) = False%
       IF OK% THEN
         CALL SaveMove(E1%, C1%)    ' Save king's move
               ' Save type of castling
         MoveStack(Index - 1).CastlingNr = LongCastlingMove%
       END IF
     END IF
   ELSE                                ' Black is to make a move
   IF bKing = E8% AND MoveControl(E8%) = 0 THEN
         ' Is short castling allowed?
     OK% = Board(H8%) = BR% AND MoveControl(H8%) = 0
     OK% = OK% AND Board(F8%) = Empty% AND Board(G8%) = Empty%
     OK% = OK% AND AttackingField%(E8%, White%) = False%
     OK% = OK% AND AttackingField%(F8%, White%) = False%
     OK% = OK% AND AttackingField%(G8%, White%) = False%
     IF OK% THEN
       CALL SaveMove(E8%, G8%)    ' Save king's move
       MoveStack(Index - 1).CastlingNr = ShortCastlingMove%
     END IF
            ' Is long castling allowed?
     OK% = Board(A8%) = BR% AND MoveControl(A8%) = 0
     OK% = OK% AND Board(D8%) = Empty%
     OK% = OK% AND Board(C8%) = Empty%
     OK% = OK% AND Board(B8%) = Empty%
     OK% = OK% AND AttackingField%(E8%, White%) = False%
     OK% = OK% AND AttackingField%(D8%, White%) = False%
     OK% = OK% AND AttackingField%(C8%, White%) = False%
     IF OK% THEN
       CALL SaveMove(E8%, C8%)    ' Save king's move
               ' Save type of castling
       MoveStack(Index - 1).CastlingNr = LongCastlingMove%
     END IF
   END IF
 END IF
 StackLimit(Depth + 1) = Index        ' Mark end of MoveList
END SUB

'--------------------------------------------------------------------
' InitAssessment:
' Compute the Pawn controls and the columns on which pawns and
' rooks are placed. Called by the assessment function
' for initialization.
' Calls:
' Calledby:
'--------------------------------------------------------------------
SUB InitAssessment
                              ' Delete pawn controls
   FOR i% = A1% TO H8%
      PawnControlled(i%).White = 0
      PawnControlled(i%).Black = 0
   NEXT i%

                              ' Also initialize edges. This eliminates the
                              ' need to examine edge columns.

   FOR i% = ARow% - 1 TO HRow% + 1
      Pawns(i%).White = 0
      Pawns(i%).Black = 0
      Rooks(i%).White = 0
      Rooks(i%).Black = 0
   NEXT i%

   FOR i% = A1% TO H8%
      IF Board(i%) = Empty% OR Board(i%) = Edge% THEN GOTO NextFeld
      SELECT CASE Board(i%)
      CASE WP%
         PawnControlled(i% + 9).White = PawnControlled(i% + 9).White + 1
         PawnControlled(i% + 11).White = PawnControlled(i% + 11).White + 1
         Pawns(i% MOD 10).White = Pawns(i% MOD 10).White + 1
      CASE BP%
         PawnControlled(i% - 9).Black = PawnControlled(i% - 9).Black + 1
         PawnControlled(i% - 11).Black = PawnControlled(i% - 11).Black + 1
         Pawns(i% MOD 10).Black = Pawns(i% MOD 10).Black + 1
      CASE BR%
         Rooks(i% MOD 10).Black = Rooks(i% MOD 10).Black + 1
      CASE WR%
         Rooks(i% MOD 10).White = Rooks(i% MOD 10).White + 1
      CASE ELSE
      END SELECT
NextFeld:
   NEXT i%
END SUB

'--------------------------------------------------------------------
' InitGameTree:
' Initialize the GameTree
' Calls:
' Calledby:
'--------------------------------------------------------------------
SUB InitGameTree
      ' In Depth 0 nothing has been computed, game tree already initialized
   IF Depth = 0 THEN EXIT SUB
   EpField(0) = EpField(1)
   MaterialBalance(0) = MaterialBalance(1)
   MaterialTotal(0) = MaterialTotal(1)
   Depth = 0
END SUB

'--------------------------------------------------------------------
'  Initialize:
'  Initialize the board and the game status
'  Calls:    None
'  Calledby: Main
'--------------------------------------------------------------------
SUB Initialize
      ' Board Initialization, build InitialPosition
   MoveCount = 0                       ' Counts the half-moves in the game
 
   FOR i% = 0 TO BoardDim%
      Board(i%) = InitialPosition(i%)
   NEXT i%
 
      ' Positions of the kings in the InitialPosition
   wKing = E1%
   bKing = E8%

      ' No castling yet
   FOR i% = 0 TO 2
      Castling(i%) = False%
   NEXT i%

   FOR i% = A1% TO H8%
      MoveControl(i%) = 0              ' Initially no piece has moved
   NEXT i%
 
   EpField(0) = Illegal%               ' En Passant status
   MaterialTotal(0) = MaterialSum%     ' Material value (of pieces) in InitialPosition
   MaterialBalance(0) = 0              ' Material balance even
   PlayerPlayer = False%
   StackLimit(0) = 0                   ' Limit of Movestacks
   MinDepth = 4                        ' Default ComputingDepth
   Depth = 0                           ' Current depth in the game tree
   Colour = White%                     ' White has the first move
END SUB

'--------------------------------------------------------------------
' InputMove: Function
' Attempts to interpret the passed string as a move.
' IF it's a legal move, that move is performed and the function
' returns the value "True%". If no (legal) move can be identified
' the function returns the value 'False%'.
' Calls:    GenerateMoves; InitGameTree; DisplayMove; PerformMove
'           TakeBackMove; PrintMove; AttackingField; Fieldnotation;
'           Fieldnumber;
' Calledby:
'--------------------------------------------------------------------
FUNCTION InputMove% (Move$)
   IF LEN(Move$) < 4 THEN              ' Only from-to representation is allowed
      InputMove% = False%
      EXIT FUNCTION
   END IF

   from% = Fieldnumber%(Move$)
   too% = Fieldnumber%(MID$(Move$, 3, 2))
   CALL GenerateMoves(1)
   FOR i% = StackLimit(Depth) TO StackLimit(Depth + 1) - 1
      IF MoveStack(i%).from = from% AND MoveStack(i%).too = too% THEN
         IF MoveStack(i%).PromotedPiece <> Empty% THEN   ' Promotions
            IF MID$(Move$, 5, 1) = "N" THEN  ' in the sequence queen, knight
               i% = i% + 1                   ' bishop and rook
            ELSEIF MID$(Move$, 5, 1) = "B" THEN
               i% = i% + 2
            ELSEIF MID$(Move$, 5, 1) = "R" THEN
               i% = i% + 3
            END IF
         END IF
         CALL InitGameTree
         PRINT " Your Move: ";
         CALL DisplayMove(i%)
         tmp% = LastMove               ' Temp storage for last move so far.
         CALL PerformMove(i%)          ' Warning: PerformMove changes
                                       ' the Color. Next inquiry of color must
                                       ' compensate for this.
         IF Colour = Black% THEN
            IF AttackingField%(wKing, Black%) = True% THEN
               PRINT " White king on "; Fieldnotation$(wKing); " is being checked"
               CALL TakeBackMove((i%))
               LastMove = tmp%         ' No new move made. Restore
               InputMove% = False%     ' last move.
               EXIT FUNCTION
            END IF
         ELSEIF AttackingField%(bKing, White%) = True% THEN
            PRINT " Blackr king on "; Fieldnotation$(bKing); " is being checked"
            CALL TakeBackMove((i%))
            LastMove = tmp%
            InputMove% = False%
            EXIT FUNCTION
         END IF
         PRINT
         CALL PrintMove(i%)
         InputMove% = True%
         EXIT FUNCTION
      END IF
   NEXT i%
   InputMove% = False%                 ' The input move was not found in MoveList
END FUNCTION

'--------------------------------------------------------------------
' InputPosition:
' Input of any position
' Calls:    DisplayBoard; PrintPosition; ReadPiece;
' Calledby: CommandLoop
'--------------------------------------------------------------------
SUB InputPosition
   Depth = 0                           ' Position becomes root of the search tree
PieceInput:      
   INPUT " Delete Board (Y/N) ", Inputs$
   Inputs$ = UCASE$(Inputs$)           ' change to upper case
   IF Inputs$ = "Y" THEN
      FOR i% = Column1% TO Column8%
         FOR j% = ARow% TO HRow%
            Board(i% * 10 + j%) = Empty%
         NEXT j%
      NEXT i%
   END IF
      ' Do not interpret "Y" as no
   PRINT " White:"
   ReadPiece (White%)
   PRINT " Black:"
   ReadPiece (Black%)

      ' Compute material balance and examine if each side
      ' has just one king.

   MaterialBalance(0) = 0
   MaterialTotal(0) = 0
   wKings% = 0
   bKings% = 0
   FOR i% = A1% TO H8%                 ' Read each field
      IF Board(i%) = Empty% OR Board(i%) = Edge% THEN
         GOTO Continue                 ' Empty or edge field found, go to next field
      END IF
         ' New Material balance
         ' White piece positively affects the balance, back negatively
      MaterialBalance(0) = MaterialBalance(0) + SGN(Board(i%)) * PieceMaterial(ABS(Board(i%)))
      IF ABS(Board(i%)) <> WP% THEN
         MaterialTotal(0) = MaterialTotal(0) + PieceMaterial(ABS(Board(i%)))
      END IF
      IF Board(i%) = WK% THEN
         wKings% = wKings% + 1         ' Number and position of white kings
         wKing = i%
      END IF
      IF Board(i%) = BK% THEN
         bKings% = bKings% + 1         ' Black kings
         bKing = i%
      END IF
Continue:
   NEXT i%
   IF bKings% <> 1 OR wKings% <> 1 THEN
      PRINT "Illegal position, each side must have exactly one king"
      CALL DisplayBoard(True%)
      GOTO PieceInput
   END IF

Repeat:                                ' The entry must be complete with a legal position
                                       ' otherwise the movegenerator doesn't work.
   INPUT " Whose move (W/B): "; Inputs$
   Inputs$ = UCASE$(Inputs$)
   IF Inputs$ = "W" THEN
      Colour = White%
   ELSEIF Inputs$ = "B" THEN
      Colour = Black%                  ' Material balance was computed from
      MaterialBalance(0) = -MaterialBalance(0)   'white's viewpoint until now.
   ELSE
      GOTO Repeat
   END IF

   FOR i% = A1% TO H8%                 ' To simplify, we assume here that
      MoveControl(i%) = 1              ' all pieces have already moved once.
   NEXT i%                             ' Otherwise, the assessment function
                                       ' believes this is an
                                       ' Initial position.
   MoveControl(E1%) = 0
   MoveControl(A1%) = 0                ' Single exception: The king and rook
   MoveControl(H1%) = 0                ' fields represent the castling state
   MoveControl(E8%) = 0                ' and must therefore be reset
   MoveControl(A8%) = 0                ' to zero.
   MoveControl(H8%) = 0
 
   EpField(0) = Illegal%
   INPUT " Change the status (Y/N): "; Inputs$
   Inputs$ = UCASE$(Inputs$)
   IF Inputs$ = "Y" THEN
          ' Input the enpassant Field. if following input ins't correct,
          ' enpassant is not possible.
      INPUT " En passant column: "; Inputs$
      Inputs$ = UCASE$(Inputs$)
      ep$ = LEFT$(Inputs$, 1)
      IF ep$ >= "A" AND ep$ <= "H" THEN
         IF Colour = White% THEN
            EpField(0) = A6% + ASC(ep$) - ASC("A")
         ELSE
            EpField(0) = A3% + ASC(ep$) - ASC("A")
         END IF
      END IF
          ' Black short castling. By default, castling is possible.
      INPUT " Black 0-0 legal (Y/N)  : "; Inputs$
      Inputs$ = UCASE$(Inputs$)
      IF Inputs$ = "N" THEN
         MoveControl(H8%) = 1           ' Move the rook. This eliminates
                                        ' the castling.
      END IF
      INPUT " Black 0-0-0 legal (Y/N): "; Inputs$
      Inputs$ = UCASE$(Inputs$)
      IF Inputs$ = "N" THEN
         MoveControl(A8%) = 1
      END IF
      INPUT " White 0-0 legal (Y/N)    : "; Inputs$
      Inputs$ = UCASE$(Inputs$)
      IF Inputs$ = "N" THEN
         MoveControl(H1%) = 1
      END IF
      INPUT " White 0-0-0 legal (Y/N)  : "; Inputs$
      Inputs$ = UCASE$(Inputs$)
      IF Inputs$ = "N" THEN
         MoveControl(A1%) = 1
      END IF
   END IF
   MoveCount = 0                       ' Reset the move count
   CALL DisplayBoard(False%)           ' Display the new board
   CALL PrintPosition
END SUB

' -----------------------------------------------------------------
' MoveBack:
' Takes back a move
' Since the pllayer moves aaaaare not stored, a mizimun of
' one move can be taken back.
' Calls:    TakeBackMove; DisplayBoard; PrintBack
' Calledby:
' -----------------------------------------------------------------
SUB MoveBack
   IF Depth <> 1 THEN
      PRINT " Unfortunately not possible."
      EXIT SUB
   END IF
   CALL TakeBackMove(LastMove)
   CALL DisplayBoard(False%)
   CALL PrintBack
END SUB

' -----------------------------------------------------------------
' MoveList:
' Generate all moves and display them on the monitor
' Calls:    GenerateMoves; DisplayMove; AttackingField;
' Calledby:
' -----------------------------------------------------------------
SUB MoveList
   CALL GenerateMoves(1)
   IF Colour = White% THEN
      CheckMated% = AttackingField%(bKing, White%)
   ELSE
      CheckMated% = AttackingField%(wKing, Black%)
   END IF
   IF CheckMated% THEN
      PRINT " The king cannot be captured"
      EXIT SUB
   END IF
   PRINT " "; Index - StackLimit(Depth); "pseudo legal moves`"
   FOR i% = StackLimit(Depth) TO Index - 1
      CALL DisplayMove(i%)
      IF (i% - StackLimit(Depth)) MOD 9 = 8 THEN  ' After 8 moves start
         PRINT                        ' a new line.
      END IF
   NEXT i%
   PRINT                              ' Carriage return
END SUB

'--------------------------------------------------------------------
' NextBestMove: Function
' From the possible moves of a certain depth the best,
' not-yet-played move is selected. Returns the index of the move
' into MoveStack. If all moves were already played, an
' impossible index (-1) is returned.
' The value of a move is determined by the move generator.
' This function finishes the move sorting in the search.
' Calls:
' Calledby:
'--------------------------------------------------------------------
FUNCTION NextBestMove%
   BestMove% = -1
   BestValue% = -MateValue%
   FOR i% = StackLimit(Depth) TO StackLimit(Depth + 1) - 1
      IF MoveStack(i%).Value > BestValue% THEN ' Found new best move
         BestMove% = i%
         BestValue% = MoveStack(i%).Value
      END IF
   NEXT i%
      ' Mark the selected move so it isn't selected again
      ' on the next call.
   IF BestMove% >= 0 THEN MoveStack(BestMove%).Value = -MateValue%
   NextBestMove% = BestMove%
END FUNCTION

'--------------------------------------------------------------------
' PerformMove:
' Performs a move at the board and updates the status and
' the search depth.
' CurrMove% is the index of the move into MoveStack.
' Calls:
' Calledby:
'--------------------------------------------------------------------
SUB PerformMove (CurrMove%)
   MoveCount = MoveCount + 1           ' Increase move count by one half-move
   from% = MoveStack(CurrMove%).from
   too% = MoveStack(CurrMove%).too
   ep% = MoveStack(CurrMove%).EpField
   LastMove = CurrMove%
   Depth = Depth + 1                   ' One step deeper in the tree
   TooFeld(Depth) = too%               ' Used for move sorting and extension
                                       ' of the search.
   EpField(Depth) = Illegal%
      ' Material balance is always seen from the viewpoint of the player who is
      ' to make a move. Therefore, flip the sign.
   MaterialBalance(Depth) = -MaterialBalance(Depth - 1)
   MaterialTotal(Depth) = MaterialTotal(Depth - 1)
      ' The piece is moving from the 'from' field to the 'to' field
   MoveControl(from%) = MoveControl(from%) + 1
   MoveControl(too%) = MoveControl(too%) + 1
   IF ep% <> Illegal% THEN
      IF Board(ep%) = Empty% THEN      ' Pawn move from 2nd to 4th row
         EpField(Depth) = ep%
      ELSE                             ' Enemy pawn is captured enpassant
         Board(ep%) = Empty%           ' Remove captured pawn
         MaterialBalance(Depth) = MaterialBalance(Depth) - MatP%
      END IF
   ELSE                  ' If a piece is captured, change the material balance
      IF MoveStack(CurrMove%).CapturedPiece <> Empty% THEN   ' Piece was captured
         MatChange% = PieceMaterial(MoveStack(CurrMove%).CapturedPiece)
         MaterialBalance(Depth) = MaterialBalance(Depth) - MatChange%
            ' Sum up only the officer's material value
         IF MatChange% <> MatP% THEN
            MaterialTotal(Depth) = MaterialTotal(Depth) - MatChange%
         END IF
      END IF
   END IF
   Board(too%) = Board(from%)           ' Place onto board
   Board(from%) = Empty%
 
      ' Now the special cases promotion and castling
   IF MoveStack(CurrMove%).PromotedPiece <> Empty% THEN     ' Pawn promotion
      Board(too%) = Colour * MoveStack(CurrMove%).PromotedPiece
      MatChange% = PieceMaterial(MoveStack(CurrMove%).PromotedPiece) - MatP%
      MaterialBalance(Depth) = MaterialBalance(Depth) - MatChange%
                     ' Pawns are not included in MaterialTotal.
      MaterialTotal(Depth) = MaterialTotal(Depth) + MatChange% + MatP%
   ELSE
      IF MoveStack(CurrMove%).CastlingNr = ShortCastlingMove% THEN
         Board(too% + 1) = Empty%      ' 'to' is G1 or G8 (depending on color)
         Board(too% - 1) = Colour * WR%  ' Put white/black Rook on F1/F8
         Castling(Colour + 1) = True%
      ELSEIF MoveStack(CurrMove%).CastlingNr = LongCastlingMove% THEN
         Board(too% - 2) = Empty%        ' 'to' is C1 or C8
         Board(too% + 1) = Colour * WR%
         Castling(Colour + 1) = True%
      END IF
   END IF
      ' If king has moved, update the king's position
   IF Board(too%) = WK% THEN
      wKing = too%
   ELSEIF Board(too%) = BK% THEN
      bKing = too%
   END IF
      ' Flip the color (the Side who is to make the move)
   Colour = -Colour
END SUB

'--------------------------------------------------------------------
' PrintBack:
' Print the take-back command
' Calls:
' Calledby:
'--------------------------------------------------------------------
SUB PrintBack
   IF Printing = False% THEN EXIT SUB   ' Only if printing is on
   IF Colour = White% THEN
      LPRINT "   Back"
      IsWhiteLast = False%
   ELSE
      LPRINT USING "###.   Back!"; MoveCount \ 2 + 1; CHR$(9);
      IsWhiteLast = True%
   END IF
END SUB

'--------------------------------------------------------------------
'  PrintLogo:
'  Displays the program logo/menu on the monitor (see CommandLoop
'  Calls:    None
'  Calledby: Main;
'--------------------------------------------------------------------
SUB PrintLogo
   CLS
   PRINT "***********************************************************"
   PRINT "*                  MiniMAX 1.0 (Basic)                    *"
   PRINT "*                                                         *"
   PRINT "*                 by Dieter Steinwender                   *"
   PRINT "*                 and Chrilly Donninger                   *"
   PRINT "*                                                         *"
   PRINT "*       Input a move (e.g. G1F3)                          *"
   PRINT "*       or one ot the following commands:                 *"
   PRINT "*                                                         *"
   PRINT "*       NG  -->  New game                                 *"
   PRINT "*       EN  -->  End the program                          *"
   PRINT "*       DB  -->  Display board on the monitor             *"
   PRINT "*       CP  -->  Input position (Chess problem)           *"
   PRINT "*       PL  -->  Play, computer move                      *"
   PRINT "*       PR  -->  Printing on/off                          *"
   PRINT "*       MM  -->  Multi moves input Player-Player          *"
   PRINT "*       DL  -->  Display move list                        *"
   PRINT "*       TB  -->  Take back one move                       *"
   PRINT "*       SD  -->  Set computing depth                      *"
   PRINT "*       DA  -->  Display assessment                       *"
   PRINT "***********************************************************"
END SUB

'--------------------------------------------------------------------
' PrintMove:
' Prints the current move.
' WARNING: Don't change the format of this output as it will cause
'          malfunction of the Noname driver the CHESS232 board
'          and the Autoplayer AUTO232.
'
' Notes:
' CHR$(9) is the tab character
' Calls:    Fieldnotation;
' Calledby:
'--------------------------------------------------------------------
SUB PrintMove (CurrMove%)
   IF Printing = False% THEN EXIT SUB  ' Only if Printing is on
   IF Colour = Black% THEN             ' If black is to make a move
                                       ' the last move was by white.
      LPRINT USING "###.   "; MoveCount \ 2 + 1;
      IsWhiteLast = True%
   ELSE                                ' Black move
      IF IsWhiteLast = True% THEN
         LPRINT "   ";
      ELSE
         LPRINT USING "###.    ... !   "; MoveCount \ 2 + 1; CHR$(9);
      END IF
      IsWhiteLast = False%
   END IF

   IF MoveStack(CurrMove%).CastlingNr = NoCastlingMove% THEN
      LPRINT PrintSymbol(ABS(Board(MoveStack(CurrMove%).too)));
      from$ = LCASE$(Fieldnotation$(MoveStack(CurrMove%).from))
      LPRINT from$;
      IF MoveStack(CurrMove%).CapturedPiece <> Empty% THEN
         LPRINT "x";
      ELSE
         LPRINT "-";
      END IF
      too$ = LCASE$(Fieldnotation$(MoveStack(CurrMove%).too))
      LPRINT too$;
      IF MoveStack(CurrMove%).PromotedPiece <> Empty% THEN
         LPRINT PrintSymbol(MoveStack(CurrMove%).PromotedPiece);
      END IF
   ELSEIF MoveStack(CurrMove%).CastlingNr = ShortCastlingMove% THEN
      LPRINT "  0-0 ";
   ELSE
      LPRINT " 0-0-0"
   END IF
      ' Finish with the tab character for a white move
      ' or a charriage return for a black move
   IF Colour = Black% THEN
      LPRINT CHR$(9);
   ELSE
      LPRINT
   END IF
END SUB

'--------------------------------------------------------------------
' PrintPosition:
' Prints the current position im ChessBase / Fritz format.
' WARNING: Don't change the format of this output as it will
'          cause malfunction of the Chess332 driver.
' Calls:    Fieldnotation;
' Calledby:
'--------------------------------------------------------------------
SUB PrintPosition
   IF Printing = False% THEN EXIT SUB

   IF IsWhiteLast = True% THEN
      LPRINT
      IsWhiteLast = False%
   END IF

   LPRINT "(wK";
   LPRINT Fieldnotation$(wKing);        ' First the king
   FOR i% = A1% TO H8%                  ' Remaining white pieces
      IF Board(i%) > 0 AND Board(i%) < WK% THEN
         LPRINT ","; FigSymbol(Board(i%));
         LPRINT Fieldnotation$(i%);
      END IF
   NEXT i%
   LPRINT "; sK";
   LPRINT Fieldnotation$(bKing);       ' First the king
   FOR i% = A1% TO H8%                 ' Remaining black pieces
      IF Board(i%) < 0 AND Board(i%) > BK% THEN
         LPRINT ","; FigSymbol(ABS(Board(i%)));
         LPRINT Fieldnotation$(i%);
      END IF
   NEXT i%
   LPRINT ")"
END SUB

'--------------------------------------------------------------------
' ReadPiece:
' Reads the Piece for the "Side"
' Format is: e.g. "Ke1".
' "." is "empty field", i.e. removes any piece from that field.
' Calls:    Fieldnumber;
' Calledby:
'--------------------------------------------------------------------
SUB ReadPiece (Side%)
NextPiece:
   INPUT Inputs$
   IF Inputs$ = "" THEN EXIT SUB            ' Exit if input is void
   IF LEN(Inputs$) < 3 THEN GOTO BadInput   ' Input to short
   Inputs$ = UCASE$(Inputs$)                ' Uppercase
   Piece$ = LEFT$(Inputs$, 1)
   Feld$ = MID$(Inputs$, 2, 2)
   FOR i% = 0 TO PieceTypes%                ' From empty field to king
      IF Piece$ = FigSymbol(i%) THEN
         ' Converts chess notation into field value
         ' First character of input was already used for the Piece
         Feld% = Fieldnumber%(Feld$)
         IF Feld% = Illegal% THEN GOTO BadInput
         IF i% = WP% THEN                   ' Pawns only legal on 2nd thru 7th row
            IF Feld% <= H1% OR Feld% >= A8% THEN GOTO BadInput
         END IF
         Piece% = i% * Side%                 ' If color is black the sign
                                             ' of the piece is reversed.
         Board(Feld%) = Piece%               ' Place piece on the board
         GOTO NextPiece
      END IF
   NEXT i%
BadInput:
   PRINT " Bad Input Entered "
   GOTO NextPiece
END SUB

'--------------------------------------------------------------------
' SaveCaptureMove:
' Save a capture move in MoveStack.
' Calls:
' Calledby:
'--------------------------------------------------------------------
SUB SaveCaptureMove (from%, too%)
      ' King cannot be captured
   IF Board(too%) = WK% OR Board(too%) = BK% THEN EXIT SUB

   FigValue% = PieceMaterial(ABS(Board(too%)))
   MoveStack(Index).from = from%
   MoveStack(Index).too = too%
   MoveStack(Index).CapturedPiece = ABS(Board(too%))

      ' Rule for move sorting: Capturee the mose valuable piece
      ' using the the least valuable piece
   MoveStack(Index).Value = FigValue% - (PieceMaterial(ABS(Board(from%))) \ 8)

      ' Extra Bonus for capturing the piece just moved
   IF Depth > 0 THEN
      IF too% = TooFeld(Depth - 1) THEN
         MoveStack(Index).Value = MoveStack(Index).Value + 300
      END IF
   END IF

      ' Bonus for Main variant moves and "killer" moves
   Killer1% = KillerTab(Depth).Killer1.from = from%
   Killer1% = Killer1% AND KillerTab(Depth).Killer1.too = too%
   Killer2% = KillerTab(Depth).Killer2.from = from%
   Killer2% = Killer2% AND KillerTab(Depth).Killer2.too = too%
   MVarMove% = MVar(0, Depth).from = from% AND MVar(0, Depth).too = too%
   IF MVarMove% THEN
      MoveStack(Index).Value = MoveStack(Index).Value + MainVariantBonus%
   ELSEIF Killer1% THEN
      MoveStack(Index).Value = MoveStack(Index).Value + Killer1Bonus%
   ELSEIF Killer2% THEN
      MoveStack(Index).Value = MoveStack(Index).Value + Killer2Bonus%
   END IF

   MoveStack(Index).PromotedPiece = Empty%
   MoveStack(Index).CastlingNr = NoCastlingMove%
   MoveStack(Index).EpField = Illegal%
   IF Index < MoveStackDim% THEN        ' Prevent MoveStack overflow
      Index = Index + 1
   ELSE
      PRINT " ERROR: Move stack overflow"
      SYSTEM                            ' Exit to DOS
   END IF
END SUB

'--------------------------------------------------------------------
' SaveEpMove:
' Save En Passant Move in the MoveStack.
' Calls:
' Calledby:
'--------------------------------------------------------------------
SUB SaveEpMove (from%, too%, ep%)
      ' King cannot be captured
   IF Board(too%) = WK% OR Board(too%) = BK% THEN EXIT SUB
   MoveStack(Index).from = from%
   MoveStack(Index).too = too%
   MoveStack(Index).CapturedPiece = WP%
   MoveStack(Index).PromotedPiece = Empty%
   MoveStack(Index).CastlingNr = NoCastlingMove%
   MoveStack(Index).EpField = ep%
   MoveStack(Index).Value = MatP%

   IF Index < MoveStackDim% THEN      ' Prevent MoveStack overflow
      Index = Index + 1
   ELSE
      PRINT " ERROR: Move stack overflow"
      SYSTEM                          ' Exit to DOS
   END IF
END SUB

'---------------------------------------------------------------------
' SaveMove:
' Save a normal move in the MoveStack.
' As a side effect, this procedure provides the mobility of bishop
' and rook, as well as the value of the move for the pre-sorting.
' Calls:
' Calledby:
'---------------------------------------------------------------------
SUB SaveMove (from%, too%)
      ' Increse the mobility of the bishop and Rook.
      ' Mobility in the center is rated higher
      ' than mobility at the edge.

   IF Colour = White% THEN
      IF Board(from%) = WB% OR Board(from%) = WR% THEN
         Mobility(Depth) = Mobility(Depth) + CenterTable(too%)
      END IF
   ELSE
      IF Board(from%) = BB% OR Board(from%) = BR% THEN
         Mobility(Depth) = Mobility(Depth) + CenterTable(too%)
      END IF
   END IF

      ' Assess the move for move sorting. Bonus for main variant or "killer"
   Killer1% = KillerTab(Depth).Killer1.from = from%
   Killer1% = Killer1% AND KillerTab(Depth).Killer1.too = too%
   Killer2% = KillerTab(Depth).Killer2.from = from%
   Killer2% = Killer2% AND KillerTab(Depth).Killer2.too = too%
   MVarMove% = MVar(0, Depth).from = from% AND MVar(0, Depth).too = too%
   IF MVarMove% THEN
      MoveStack(Index).Value = MainVariantBonus%
   ELSEIF Killer1% THEN
      MoveStack(Index).Value = Killer1Bonus%
   ELSEIF Killer2% THEN
      MoveStack(Index).Value = Killer2Bonus%
   ELSE
      MoveStack(Index).Value = Empty%
   END IF

   MoveStack(Index).from = from%
   MoveStack(Index).too = too%
   MoveStack(Index).CapturedPiece = Empty%
   MoveStack(Index).PromotedPiece = Empty%
   MoveStack(Index).CastlingNr = NoCastlingMove%
   MoveStack(Index).EpField = Illegal%
                                 
   IF Index < MoveStackDim% THEN       ' Prevent MoveStack overflow
      Index = Index + 1
   ELSE
      PRINT " ERROR: Move stack overflowed"
      SYSTEM                           ' In this case "ease out" to DOS
   END IF
END SUB

'--------------------------------------------------------------------
' SavePromotion:
' Produce all possible pawn promotions
' Calls:    SaveMove; SaveCaptureMove;
' Calledby:
'--------------------------------------------------------------------
SUB SavePromotion (from%, too%)
   IF Board(too%) = Empty% THEN
      FOR i% = WQ% TO WR% STEP -1       ' Sequence queen,knight,bishop,rook
         CALL SaveMove(from%, too%)
         MoveStack(Index - 1).PromotedPiece = i%
      NEXT i%
   ELSE                                 ' Promotion with capture
      FOR i% = WQ% TO WR% STEP -1
         CALL SaveCaptureMove(from%, too%)
         MoveStack(Index - 1).PromotedPiece = i%
      NEXT i%
   END IF
END SUB

'--------------------------------------------------------------------
' TakeBackMove:
' Takes back a move in the tree.
' CurrMove% is the index of the move in MoveStack.
' Calls:
' Calledby:
'--------------------------------------------------------------------
SUB TakeBackMove (CurrMove%)
   MoveCount = MoveCount - 1
   from% = MoveStack(CurrMove%).from
   too% = MoveStack(CurrMove%).too
   ep% = MoveStack(CurrMove%).EpField

   Colour = -Colour                     ' Other side to move
   Depth = Depth - 1                    ' One level higher in tree
   Board(from%) = Board(too%)           ' Put back the piece
   Board(too%) = Empty%
   IF ep% <> Illegal% AND MoveStack(CurrMove%).CapturedPiece = WP% THEN
      Board(ep%) = -Colour                   ' WP%=White%, BP%=Black%
      ' Put back captured piece
   ELSEIF MoveStack(CurrMove%).CapturedPiece <> Empty% THEN
      Board(too%) = (-Colour) * MoveStack(CurrMove%).CapturedPiece
   END IF
      ' Adjust move counter
   MoveControl(from%) = MoveControl(from%) - 1
   MoveControl(too%) = MoveControl(too%) - 1
      ' If castling put back rook
   IF MoveStack(CurrMove%).CastlingNr = ShortCastlingMove% THEN
      Board(too% + 1) = Colour * WR%
      Board(too% - 1) = Empty%
      Castling(Colour + 1) = False%
   ELSEIF MoveStack(CurrMove%).CastlingNr = LongCastlingMove% THEN
      Board(too% - 2) = Colour * WR%
      Board(too% + 1) = Empty%
      Castling(Colour + 1) = False%
   END IF
   IF MoveStack(CurrMove%).PromotedPiece <> Empty% THEN
      Board(from%) = Colour            ' Take back pawn promotion
   END IF
      ' IF the king has moved, update the king's Position
   IF Board(from%) = WK% THEN
      wKing = from%
   ELSEIF Board(from%) = BK% THEN
      bKing = from%
   END IF
END SUB

'--------------------------------------------------------------------
' WPAssessment: Function
' Assessment of one white Pawn.
' Analogous to the assessment of black pawns.
' Returns the assessment from white's viewpoint.
' Calls:
' Calledby:  AssessPosition
'--------------------------------------------------------------------
FUNCTION WPAssessment% (Feld%, Column%, row%, developed%)
   IF MaterialTotal(Depth) > EndgameMaterial% THEN   ' Opening of midgame
      Value% = wPFieldValue(Feld%)
         ' If development incomplete, don't push edge pawns forward
      IF developed% < 4 THEN
         IF (row% >= FRow% OR row% <= BRow%) AND Column% > Column3% THEN
            Value% = Value% - 15
         END IF
      END IF
   ELSE                                ' In then endgame, all lines are equally good.
      Value% = Column% * 4             ' Bring pawns forward.
   END IF

      ' Is the pawn isolated?
      ' Edge pawns don't require extra treatment. Pawns(ARow-1) is
      ' the left edge, Pawns(HRow+1) the right edge. No pawn is
      ' placed on these edges.
   IF Pawns(row% - 1).White = 0 AND Pawns(row% + 1).White = 0 THEN
      Value% = Value% - 12                           ' Isolated
         ' Isolated double pawn
      IF Pawns(row%).White > 1 THEN Value% = Value% - 12
   END IF
 
      ' Double pawns
   IF Pawns(row%).White > 1 THEN Value% = Value% - 15

      ' Duo or guarded pawn gets a bonus
   IF PawnControlled(Feld%).White > 0 OR PawnControlled(Feld% + 10).White > 0 THEN
      Value% = Value% + Column%
   END IF

   IF Pawns(row%).Black = 0 THEN       ' Half-open column
      ' Pawn left behind on half-open column:
      ' Left behind pawn is not guarded by its fellow pawns..
      Condition1% = PawnControlled(Feld%).White = 0
         ' ... and can't advance because of enemy pawns
         ' control the field in front of him.
      Condition2% = PawnControlled(Feld% + 10).Black > PawnControlled(Feld% + 10).White
      IF Condition1% AND Condition2% THEN
         Value% = Value% - 10
            ' Rook impeded by left-behind pawn
         IF Rooks(row%).Black > 0 THEN Value% = Value% - 8
      ELSE
         ' Pawn is a free pawn, on a half-open column and the
         ' fields ahead on his column are not controlled by
         ' enemy pawns.
         FOR j% = Feld% TO H6% STEP 10  ' Until 6th row
            IF PawnControlled(j%).Black > 0 THEN
               WPAssessment% = Value%
               EXIT FUNCTION
            END IF
         NEXT j%

            ' Free pawn found. In the endgame, a free pawn is more important
            ' than in midgame.
         IF MaterialTotal(Depth) < EndgameMaterial% THEN
            Value% = Value% + Column% * 16  ' The more advanced the better
               ' Rook guards free pawn on the same column
            IF Rooks(row%).White > 0 THEN Value% = Value% + Column% * 2
               ' Enemy rook on the same column.
            IF Rooks(row%).Black > 0 THEN Value% = Value% - Column% * 2
               ' Pure pawn endgame. Free pawn particularly valuable.
            IF MaterialTotal(Depth) = 0 THEN Value% = Value% + Column% * 8
               ' Guarded free pawn
            IF PawnControlled(Feld%).White > 0 OR PawnControlled(Feld% + 10).White > 0 THEN
               Value% = Value% + Column% * 4
            END IF
               ' Free pawn blocked by a black piece. This piece is not
               ' threatened by fellow pawns.
            IF Board(Feld% + 10) < 0 AND PawnControlled(Feld% + 10).White = 0 THEN
               Value% = Value% - Column% * 4
            END IF
         ELSE                          ' Free pawn in the midgame
            Value% = Value% + Column% * 8
               ' Guarded free pawn
            IF PawnControlled(Feld%).White > 0 OR PawnControlled(Feld% + 10).White > 0 THEN
               Value% = Value% + Column% * 2
            END IF
         END IF
      END IF
   END IF
   WPAssessment% = Value%
END FUNCTION

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